# Geography

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1. metric system
decimal system that uses only one basic unit for each type of measurement
2. meter
unit of length; m
3. liter
unit of volume; l
4. gram
unit of mass; g
5. 3 basic units
meter, liter, and gram
6. Very small distance
micrometer (um), also known as micron

nanometer (nm)

*1 um = 0.00001 m; 1 mil um = 1 m; 1 nm = 0.000000001 m
7. Giga, mega, kilo, hecto, and deka
G 1,000,000,000 x base

M 1,000,000 x base

K 1,000 x base

H 100 x base

D 10 x base
8. deci, centi, milli, micro, nano
d 0.1 x base

c 0.01 x base

m 0.001 x base

u 0.000001 x base

n 0.000000001 x base
9. specific gravity
ratio of the mass of a given volume of the substance to the mass of an equal volume of some other substance taken as a standard, g/cm3
10. Conversion of Celsius to Fahrenheit
°F = (1.8)°C + 32°
11. Conversion of Fahrenheit to Celsius
°C = (°F - 32°) / 1.8
12. Conversion of Kelvin to Celsius and C to K
(K-273)°, (C+273)K
13. astronomical unit
unit for measuring distance within solar system, AU
14. light-year
unit for measuring distance to stars and beyond, LY
15. 1 AU =___ kilometers =___ miles
150 million, 93 million
16. 1 LY =___ km =___ miles
9,454,254,955,488, 6 trillion
17. density
mass of substance per unit volume, g/cm3
18. methods of scientific inquiry
1. hypothesis

2. gather data & conduct experiments to validate hypothesis

3. conclusion
19. 1 ml of water equals...
1 cm3 and 1 gram
20. Earth's grid
a system of north-south and east-west lines
21. latitude
North and south distance on Earth
22. parallels of latitude
lines on grid that extend around Earth in an East West direction
23. equator
line on Earth's surface, mark N & S distance
24. longitude
East and West distance on Earth
25. Meridians of longitude
each halves of circles extending from North Pole - South Pole on one side of Earth
26. prime meridian
line on Earth's surface, marking E and W distance
27. the intersection of a parallel of latitude w/meridian of longitude determines...
location of point on Earth's surface
28. precise location
degrees(°), minutes ('), seconds (")

• °; destinations, distance around circle
• '; degrees subdivided into 60 equal parts
• "; minute of angle divided into 60 parts
29. hemispheres
2 equal halves of globe
30. Solar (Sun, time)
uses position of Sun to determine time
31. Standard Time
system used throughout most of the world, divide globe into 24 standard time zones
32. great circle
largest possible circle that can be drawn on a globe
33. small circle
circles on a globe's surface that don't share Earth's center
34. The Equator is the only parallel that is also
a great circle
35. If you observe the north star (Polaris) to be 47 degrees above your north horizon, your latitude is
47 degrees north
36. 2.5 hours solar time is equivalent to __________degrees of longitude
37.5
37. The length of a degree of longitude increases at...
higher latitudes
38. The farthest one can get from the Equator in latitude is...
90 degrees north and 90 degrees south
39. All meridians, when paired with their opposite meridian on Earth, form...
great circles
40. The Tropic of Capricorn lies north of the..
Equator
41. The longitude of the North Pole is...
it has no longitude
42. In terms of longitude, which of the 50 states are furthest east and furthest west?
43. If you observe the noon sun on board your ship at 1:30 PM Greenwich time, your longitude is...
22.5 degrees west
44. At the June solstice the sun can be seen directly overhead only at the...
equator
45. On September 21, the sun's rays are perpendicular to the Earth's surface at...
the Equator
46. In Australia, the spring equinox is marked on...
September 21-22
47. What is your latitude if on June 21 you observe the noon Sun to be 80.5 degrees above your south horizon?
33 degrees north
48. On December 21, where would you go to experience 24 hours of daylight?
South Pole
49. What is the relation between noon Sun angle and amount of solar radiation received at the outer edge of the Earths atmosphere?
50. Variation in the intensity and duration of solar radiation at any given place is largely caused by...
the tilt of the Earths axis of rotation relative to the plane of the ecliptic
51. The maximum noon Sun angle at Bombay India during the year, (19 degrees N.) is...
89 degrees
52. Winter begins in the southern hemisphere on...
June 21-22
53. During the winter months in South Africa, you would observe the noon Sun angle looking to the...
north
54. The Earth is approximately how far from the Sun?
150 million kilometers, 93 million miles, 1 AU
55. map
generalized view of an area
56. cartography
part of geography that embodies mapmaking
57. map projection
transformation of spherical Earth and its latitude-longitude coordinate grid system to a flat surface in some orderly and systematic realignment
58. physical properies of a globe
-parallels are always parallel to each other

-meridians converge at both poles and are eavenly spaced along any individual parallel

-distance between meridians decreases toward poles, w/spacing between meridians at the 60th parallels equal to one-half the equatorial spacing

-parallels and meridians always cross each other at right angles
59. equal area
trait of map projection; indicates equivalence of all areas on surface of the map
60. true shape
map property showing correct configuration of coastlines
61. 3 classes of maps
cylindrical, planar, and conic
62. standard line
contact line between globe and projection surface
63. mercator projection
conformal, true shape
64. rhumb lines
line of constant compass direction, which crosses all meridians at same angle
65. gnomonic projection
possesses a valuable features
66. representative fraction (RF)
diameter of globe/diameter of Earth = 61 cm/ 12,756 cm = 1 cm/ 20,911,000 cm
67. 4 types of map distortion
size/area, shape, distance, direction

CAN'T HAVE ALL
68. ratio of map scale
indicating how much distance on Earth a certain distance on the map represents
69. map scale displayed in 3 ways
written scale, representative fraction, graphic scale
70. large vs. small scale
large scale shows less area but that area is more detailed on map

small shows big area but with less detail

1/500 = 0.002, bigger

1/3 = 0.003333, smaller
71. weather
state of atmosphere at a particular place for a short period of time
72. four basic elements of weather
temperature, moisture, air pressure, and wind
73. Sun's intensity
the angle at which the rays of sunlight strike a surface
74. Sun's duration
length of daylight
75. standard unit of solar radiation
langley = 1 calorie
76. solar constant
average intensity of solar radiation falling on a surface perpendicular to the solar beam at the outer edge of the atmosphere
77. Tropic of Cancer
23.5 degrees N latitude
78. Tropic of Capricorn
23.5 degrees S latitude
79. equinox
March 20-21 and September 22-23 when circle of illuminations divides Earth through the poles and all places have days and nights of equal length
80. analemma
graph than can be used to determine the latitude where the overhead noon Sun is located for any date
81. minerals
naturally occurring, inorganic solid with an orderly internal arrangement of atoms and definite, but not fixed, chemical composition

*can contain only one substance, some have economic value and are used in various industries
82. the main type of distortion in a Mercator projector map distorts is...
size/area
83. the main type of distortion in a Lambert projection map is...
shape
84. the only place on a map where there is no distortion is called...
standard line
85. Optical Properties of Minerals
Luster, Transmission of light, Color, Streak
86. Luster
describes manner in which light is reflected from the surface of the mineral

metallic or nonmetallic
87. Transmission of Light
ability of mineral to transmit light

• -opaque: no light transmitted
• -translucent: light but no image transmitted
• -transparent: image visible through mineral
88. Color
*least reliable physical properties because it can be misleading
89. Streak
color of the fine powder of a mineral obtained by rubbing a corner across a piece of porcelain (streak plate)
90. Hardness
measure of resistance of a mineral to abrasion and scratching

*measured on Mohs scale
91. Crystal Forms
external appearance when a mineral forms with no space restrictions

• -flat surfaced called crystal faces
• -distinctive number of face
92. Cleavage
how surfaces breaks

• -smooth, flat surfaces called cleavage planes
• -parallel planes counted only once
93. Specific Cleavage
indicator of weight of mineral

*average specific value is 2.7
94. Other Properties of Minerals
• Magnetism
• Feel
• Taste
• Striations (straight lines)
• Tenacity
• Reaction to Dilute Hydrochloric Acid
95. Rocks
aggregates of minerals
96. 3 types of rocks
Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic
97. Igneous
solidified products of once molten material (magma); interlocking arrangement of mineral crystals that forms as molten material cools and crystal grows
98. Sedimentary
formed at or near Earth's surface from weathering

*lithification, transforms sediment into hard rock
99. Metamorphic
form below Earth's surface where high temperatures, pressures, and/or chemical fluids change preexisting rocks without melting them
100. Texture of rock
shape, arrangement, and size of mineral grains in a rock
101. Composition of rock
minerals that are found in a rock
102. Textures of Igneous Rocks
• -Coarse Grained: occurs when magma cools slowly inside Earth
• -Fine Grained: develops when molten material cools quickly on, or very near, surface of Earth
• -Porphyritic: caused by magma having two different rates of cooling; phenocrysts and groundmass
• -Glassy: develops because of rapid cooling
• -Fragmental: rock contains broken fragments produced during volcanic eruption
103. Composition of Igneous Rocks
• -Felsic: light-colored minerals quartz, granitic
• -Intermediate: 15% - 45% of darkness
• -Mafic: over 45% of darkness
• -Ultramafic: ultra dark
104. Sedimentary Rock Identification
Detrital material: derived from process of mechanical weathering transported and deposited as solid particles

Chermical material: previously dissolved in water and later precipitated by either inorganic or organic processes
105. Metaphoric Rock divided into two groups
foliated and nonfoliated
106. foliation
unique to many metaphoric rocks and gives them a layered or banded appearance

### Card Set Information

 Author: happydoodle ID: 206846 Filename: Geography Updated: 2013-03-13 08:58:47 Tags: geography Folders: Description: exam Show Answers:

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