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decimal system that uses only one basic unit for each type of measurement
3 basic units
meter, liter, and gram
Very small distance
micrometer (um), also known as micron
*1 um = 0.00001 m; 1 mil um = 1 m; 1 nm = 0.000000001 m
Giga, mega, kilo, hecto, and deka
G 1,000,000,000 x base
M 1,000,000 x base
K 1,000 x base
H 100 x base
D 10 x base
deci, centi, milli, micro, nano
d 0.1 x base
c 0.01 x base
m 0.001 x base
u 0.000001 x base
n 0.000000001 x base
ratio of the mass of a given volume of the substance to the mass of an equal volume of some other substance taken as a standard, g/cm3
Conversion of Celsius to Fahrenheit
°F = (1.8)°C + 32°
Conversion of Fahrenheit to Celsius
°C = (°F - 32°) / 1.8
Conversion of Kelvin to Celsius and C to K
unit for measuring distance within solar system, AU
unit for measuring distance to stars and beyond, LY
1 AU =___ kilometers =___ miles
150 million, 93 million
1 LY =___ km =___ miles
9,454,254,955,488, 6 trillion
mass of substance per unit volume, g/cm3
methods of scientific inquiry
2. gather data & conduct experiments to validate hypothesis
1 ml of water equals...
1 cm3 and 1 gram
a system of north-south and east-west lines
North and south distance on Earth
parallels of latitude
lines on grid that extend around Earth in an East West direction
line on Earth's surface, mark N & S distance
East and West distance on Earth
Meridians of longitude
each halves of circles extending from North Pole - South Pole on one side of Earth
line on Earth's surface, marking E and W distance
the intersection of a parallel of latitude w/meridian of longitude determines...
location of point on Earth's surface
degrees(°), minutes ('), seconds (")
- °; destinations, distance around circle
- '; degrees subdivided into 60 equal parts
- "; minute of angle divided into 60 parts
2 equal halves of globe
Solar (Sun, time)
uses position of Sun to determine time
system used throughout most of the world, divide globe into 24 standard time zones
largest possible circle that can be drawn on a globe
circles on a globe's surface that don't share Earth's center
The Equator is the only parallel that is also
a great circle
If you observe the north star (Polaris) to be 47 degrees above your north horizon, your latitude is
47 degrees north
2.5 hours solar time is equivalent to __________degrees of longitude
The length of a degree of longitude increases at...
The farthest one can get from the Equator in latitude is...
90 degrees north and 90 degrees south
All meridians, when paired with their opposite meridian on Earth, form...
The Tropic of Capricorn lies north of the..
The longitude of the North Pole is...
it has no longitude
In terms of longitude, which of the 50 states are furthest east and furthest west?
If you observe the noon sun on board your ship at 1:30 PM Greenwich time, your longitude is...
22.5 degrees west
At the June solstice the sun can be seen directly overhead only at the...
On September 21, the sun's rays are perpendicular to the Earth's surface at...
In Australia, the spring equinox is marked on...
What is your latitude if on June 21 you observe the noon Sun to be 80.5 degrees above your south horizon?
33 degrees north
On December 21, where would you go to experience 24 hours of daylight?
What is the relation between noon Sun angle and amount of solar radiation received at the outer edge of the Earths atmosphere?
higher angle, more radiation
Variation in the intensity and duration of solar radiation at any given place is largely caused by...
the tilt of the Earths axis of rotation relative to the plane of the ecliptic
The maximum noon Sun angle at Bombay India during the year, (19 degrees N.) is...
Winter begins in the southern hemisphere on...
During the winter months in South Africa, you would observe the noon Sun angle looking to the...
The Earth is approximately how far from the Sun?
150 million kilometers, 93 million miles, 1 AU
generalized view of an area
part of geography that embodies mapmaking
transformation of spherical Earth and its latitude-longitude coordinate grid system to a flat surface in some orderly and systematic realignment
physical properies of a globe
-parallels are always parallel to each other
-meridians converge at both poles and are eavenly spaced along any individual parallel
-distance between meridians decreases toward poles, w/spacing between meridians at the 60th parallels equal to one-half the equatorial spacing
-parallels and meridians always cross each other at right angles
trait of map projection; indicates equivalence of all areas on surface of the map
map property showing correct configuration of coastlines
3 classes of maps
cylindrical, planar, and conic
contact line between globe and projection surface
conformal, true shape
line of constant compass direction, which crosses all meridians at same angle
possesses a valuable features
representative fraction (RF)
diameter of globe/diameter of Earth = 61 cm/ 12,756 cm = 1 cm/ 20,911,000 cm
4 types of map distortion
size/area, shape, distance, direction
CAN'T HAVE ALL
ratio of map scale
indicating how much distance on Earth a certain distance on the map represents
map scale displayed in 3 ways
written scale, representative fraction, graphic scale
large vs. small scale
large scale shows less area but that area is more detailed on map
small shows big area but with less detail
1/500 = 0.002, bigger
1/3 = 0.003333, smaller
state of atmosphere at a particular place for a short period of time
four basic elements of weather
temperature, moisture, air pressure, and wind
the angle at which the rays of sunlight strike a surface
length of daylight
standard unit of solar radiation
langley = 1 calorie
average intensity of solar radiation falling on a surface perpendicular to the solar beam at the outer edge of the atmosphere
Tropic of Cancer
23.5 degrees N latitude
Tropic of Capricorn
23.5 degrees S latitude
March 20-21 and September 22-23 when circle of illuminations divides Earth through the poles and all places have days and nights of equal length
graph than can be used to determine the latitude where the overhead noon Sun is located for any date
naturally occurring, inorganic solid with an orderly internal arrangement of atoms and definite, but not fixed, chemical composition
*can contain only one substance, some have economic value and are used in various industries
the main type of distortion in a Mercator projector map distorts is...
the main type of distortion in a Lambert projection map is...
the only place on a map where there is no distortion is called...
Optical Properties of Minerals
Luster, Transmission of light, Color, Streak
describes manner in which light is reflected from the surface of the mineral
metallic or nonmetallic
Transmission of Light
ability of mineral to transmit light
- -opaque: no light transmitted
- -translucent: light but no image transmitted
- -transparent: image visible through mineral
*least reliable physical properties because it can be misleading
color of the fine powder of a mineral obtained by rubbing a corner across a piece of porcelain (streak plate)
measure of resistance of a mineral to abrasion and scratching
*measured on Mohs scale
external appearance when a mineral forms with no space restrictions
- -flat surfaced called crystal faces
- -distinctive number of face
how surfaces breaks
- -smooth, flat surfaces called cleavage planes
- -parallel planes counted only once
indicator of weight of mineral
*average specific value is 2.7
Other Properties of Minerals
- Striations (straight lines)
- Reaction to Dilute Hydrochloric Acid
aggregates of minerals
3 types of rocks
Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic
solidified products of once molten material (magma); interlocking arrangement of mineral crystals that forms as molten material cools and crystal grows
formed at or near Earth's surface from weathering
*lithification, transforms sediment into hard rock
form below Earth's surface where high temperatures, pressures, and/or chemical fluids change preexisting rocks without melting them
Texture of rock
shape, arrangement, and size of mineral grains in a rock
Composition of rock
minerals that are found in a rock
Textures of Igneous Rocks
- -Coarse Grained: occurs when magma cools slowly inside Earth
- -Fine Grained: develops when molten material cools quickly on, or very near, surface of Earth
- -Porphyritic: caused by magma having two different rates of cooling; phenocrysts and groundmass
- -Glassy: develops because of rapid cooling
- -Fragmental: rock contains broken fragments produced during volcanic eruption
Composition of Igneous Rocks
- -Felsic: light-colored minerals quartz, granitic
- -Intermediate: 15% - 45% of darkness
- -Mafic: over 45% of darkness
- -Ultramafic: ultra dark
Sedimentary Rock Identification
Detrital material: derived from process of mechanical weathering transported and deposited as solid particles
Chermical material: previously dissolved in water and later precipitated by either inorganic or organic processes
Metaphoric Rock divided into two groups
foliated and nonfoliated
unique to many metaphoric rocks and gives them a layered or banded appearance