21.1.4B

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21.1.4B
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2013-03-12 18:07:22
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  1. I.                   Conservative Domination: The European States
    Germans
    •                                                               i.      Initially, Germans who favored liberal principles and German unity looked to Prussia for leadership
    • During Napoleonic era, King Frederick William III, following the advice of his two chief ministers, Baron Heinrich von Stein and Prince Karl von Hardenberg, instituted political and institutional reforms in response to Prussia’s defeat at the hands of Napoleon
  2. I.                   Conservative Domination: The European States
    Reforms
    • a.      Reforms included the abolition of serfdom, municipal self-government through town councils, the expansion of primary and secondary schools, and universal military conscription to form a national army
    • b.      Reforms didn’t include the creation of a legislative assembly or representative government as Stein and Hardenberg wished
  3. I.                   Conservative Domination: The European States
    Frederick William III
    • 1.      After 1815, Frederick William grew more reactionary and was content and was content to follow Metternich’s lead
    • 2.      Though reforms made Prussia strong,  it remained an absolutist state with no care for German unity
  4. I.                   Conservative Domination: The European States
    Liberal and National Movements
    •                                                               i.      Liberal and National Movements in German states limited to university professors and students
    • Students organized Burschenschaften, student societies dedicated to fostering the goal of a free, united Germany
  5. I.                   Conservative Domination: The European States
    Freidrich Ludwig Jahn
    • 1.      Ideas and motto “Honor, Liberty, Fatherland” were inspired by Freidrich Ludwig Jahn, who organized gymnastic societies during Napoleonic wars to promote the regeneration of German youth
    • a.      Jahn encouraged Germans to pursue Germanic heritage and urged followers to disrupt lectures of professors whose views were not nationalistic
  6. I.                   Conservative Domination: The European States
    Burschenschaften
    •                                                               i.      Burschenschaften
    • 1.      Pursued activities that scared German governments
    • a.      At an assembly at Wartburg Castle in 1817, marking the 300th anniversary of Luther’s 95 Theses, the crowd burned books written by conservative authors
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      When deranged student assassinated reactionary playwright, Metternich had the diet of the Germanic Confederation draw up the Karlsbad Decrees of 1819
  7. I.                   Conservative Domination: The European States
    Closing
    • 1.      These closed the Burschenschaften, provided to censorship of press, and placed the universities under close supervision and control
    • a.      Thereafter, except for minor activities, Metternich and the cooperative German rulers maintained the conservative status quo
  8. I.                   Conservative Domination: The European States
    Austrian Empire
    •                                                               i.      Austrian Empire: multinational state, a collection of different peoples under the Habsburg emperor, who provided a common bond
    • 1.      Empire contained eleven peoples of different national origin, including Germans, Czechs, Magyars, Slovaks, Romanians, Slovenes, Poles, Serbians, and Italians
  9. I.                   Conservative Domination: The European States
    Germans population
    • a.      role in governing Austria
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Essentially, Austrian Empire held together by dynasty, the imperial civil service, the imperial army, and the Catholic Church
    • 1.      Its national groups, especially the Hungarians, with their increasing desire for autonomy, acted as forces to break the empire apart
  10. I.                   Conservative Domination: The European States
    Metternich
    •                                                               i.      Metternich managed to hold it together
    • 1.      His antipathy to liberalism and nationalism understandably grounded in realization that these forces threatened to tear the empire apart
    • a.      Growing liberal belief that each national group had right to its own system of government could only mean disaster for the multinational Austrian Empire
    • b.      While forces of liberalism and nationalism grew, the Austrian Empire stagnated
  11. I.                   Conservative Domination: The European States
    Russia
    • a.      Russia: Autocracy of the Tsars
    •                                                               i.      At beginning of 19th century, Russia was rural, agriculture, and autocratic
    •                                                             ii.      Russian tsar still regarded as divine-right monarch
    • 1.      Alexander I had been raised in the ideas of the Enlightenment and seemed willing to make reforms
  12. I.                   Conservative Domination: The European States
    Michael Speransky
    • a.      With aid of liberal adviser Michael Speransky, he relaxed censorship, freed political prisoners, and reformed the educational system
    • b.      He refused to grant a constitution or free the serfs in the face of opposition from the nobility
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      After the defeat of Napoleon Alex became reactionary, and his government reverted to strict and arbitrary censorship
  13. I.                   Conservative Domination: The European States
    Opposition
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Soon opposition to Alexander arose from a group of secret societies
    • 1.      One was Northern Union
    • a.      Composed of young aristocrats who served in the Napoleonic Wars and was aware of the world outside Russia as well as intellectuals alienated by censorship and lack of academic freedom in Russian universities
    • b.      Favored establishment of a constitutional monarchy and abolition of serfdom
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Sudden death of Alex in 1825 allowed this
  14. I.                   Conservative Domination: The European States
    Brother Constantine
    •                                                               i.      Although Alex’s brother Constantine was a legal heir to the throne, he renounced his claims in favor of brother Nicholas
    • 1.      Constantine’s abdication not publicà confusionà military leaders rebelled against accession of Nicholas (Decembrist Revolt)
    • a.      Crushed by loyal troops to Nicholas; leaders were executed
  15. I.                   Conservative Domination: The European States
    Nicholas I
    •                                                               i.      Revolt transformed Nicholas I from conservative into a reactionary determined to avoid another rebellion
    • 1.      Strengthened both bureaucracy and secret police
  16. I.                   Conservative Domination: The European States
    Political Police
    • a.      Political police, called the Third Section of the tsar’s chancellery, were given sweeping powers over Russian life
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      They deported suspicious people, maintained close surveillance of foreigners in Russia, and reported to the tsar
  17. I.                   Conservative Domination: The European States
    Fear of Revolution abroad
    •                                                               i.      Fear of Revolution abroad
    • 1.      No revolution in Russia during Nicholas’ reign= Policeman of Europe because of willingness to use Russian troops to crush revolutions

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