21.2.1

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21.2.1
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2013-03-12 18:10:13
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  1. The Ideologies of Change:
    Powerful movements of change at work depending on ideas of political philosophies
  2. Liberalism
    • a.      Developed in Enlightenment of 18th and to American and French Revolutions at the end of the century
    • b.      More significant as Industrial Revolution made rapid strides because developing industrial middle class largely adopted the doctrine as its own
    • c.       Divergences of opinion among people called liberals, but all started with belief that people should be as free from restraint as possible
  3. Economic Liberalism
    • a.      that people should be as free from restraint as possible
    • b.      Economic Liberalism (classical economics)
    •                                                               i.      Primary roots in laissez-faire, the belief that the state shouldn’t interrupt the free play of natural economic forces, especially supply and demand
    • 1.      Government shouldn’t restrain the economic liberty of the individual and should restrict itself to only three jobs:
    • a.      Country defense, police protection of individuals, and construction and maintenance of public works too expensive for people to afford
  4. Economic Liberalism--> If people allowed economic liberty
    If people allowed economic liberty, they would bring maximum good for max number and benefit the general welfare of society
  5. Economic Liberalism
    Thomas Malthus
    • 1.      Enhanced defense against government interference
    • a.      Essay on the Principles of Population
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Argued that population, when unchecked, increases at a geometric rate while the food supply correspondingly increases at much slower arithmetic rate
    • 1.      Result: overpopulationà starvation if growth unchecked
  6. Economic Liberalism
    Malthus says
    a.      He says nature imposes major restraintà misery and poverty were simply the inevitable result of the law of nature; no government or individual should interfere with its operations
  7. Economic Liberalism
    David Ricardo
    • 1.      Furthered Malthus’ ideas’
    • 2.      Principles of Political Economy
    • a.      Developed “iron law of wages” and argued that increase in population means more workers; more workers in turn causes wages to fall below subsistence level; the result is misery and starvation, which reduces populationà worker amount declines and wages rise above level again, which encourages workers to have larger families againà cycle continues
    • b.      Raising wages arbitrarily= pointless; does little but perpetuate vicious circle
  8. Political Liberalism
    •                                                               i.      Liberals’ beliefs
    • 1.      Protection of civil liberties or basic rights of all people, which included equality before the law
    • 2.      Freedom of assembly, speech, and press; and from arbitrary arrest
    • a.      All freedoms should be guaranteed by written document
  9. Political Liberalism: in addition
    • 1.      In addition to religious toleration, they advocated separation of church and state
    • a.      Right of peaceful opposition to government in and out of parliament and making of laws by a representative assembly (legislature) elected by qualified voters constituted two other liberal demands
  10. Political Liberalism
    Many liberals believed
    •                                                               i.      Many liberals believed in constitutional monarchy or constitutional state with limits on powers of government to prevent despotism and in written constitutions that would guarantee these rights
    •                                                             ii.      Many advocated ministerial responsibility, which would give legislative branch a check on power of executive because the king’s ministers would answer to the legislature rather than to the king
  11. Political Liberalism
    Liberals in 1st half
    •                                                               i.      Liberals in 1st half also believed in limited suffrage
    • 1.      Although all people entitled to equal civil rights, they shouldn’t have equal political rights
    • a.      Right to vote and hold office would be open only to men who met certain property qualifications
  12. Political Liberalism
    Tied to..
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      As political philosophy, liberalism tied to middle-class men, especially industrial middle-class men who favored extension of voting rights so that they could share power with the landowning classes
    • b.      They had little desire to let lower classes share that power
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Liberals were not democrats
  13. Political Liberalism
    John Stuart Mill
    • 1.      Liberty (statement on liberty of individual)
    • a.      Argued for “absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjects” that needed to be protected from both government censorship and tyranny of the majority
  14. Political Liberalism
    Mill was instrumental in ....
    • 1.      Instrumental in expanding meaning of liberalism by supporting women’s rights
    • a.      Attempt to include women in voting reform bill of 1867 failedà published On the Subjection of Women, written with his wife Harriet Taylor
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Argued that inferiority of one sex to another is wrong
    • 1.      Differences not due to different natures but social practices
    • a.      With equal education, women could achieve same as men

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