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what agent in chocolate is toxic to dogs?
what signs may be seen in the first 1-4hrs after ingesting toxic dose of chocolate in dogs?
- V/D, PU;
what leads to death from chocolate toxicity?
convulsions or cardiac arrythmias (2ndary pancreatitis in some)
there is no specific test for chocolate toxicity. would animal be hypo- or hyper glycemic?
hypOglycemic from muscle activity
what are the two crude fractions associated with petroleum and oil products?
- "sweet crude" = volatile light fraction
- "sour crude" = heavy fraction
what is lethal dose in dogs if they aspirate petroleum/oil products?
LD = 0.5mg/kg aspirated
what is main mechanism of toxicity for light fraction?
- irratancy to pulmonary tissue; aspiration main risk - irritates mucosa
- target = lung
- narcosis will also damage brain cortex
what is cause of death from acute crude oil exposure? what is seen with chronic exposure?
- death: respiratory failure
- chronic: cachexia, BM suppression
what are two findings on necropsy suggestive of petroleum/oil toxicity?
- myocardial calcification
- ulceration and yellow-green plaques in trachea
- (also hepatic fatty change)
what is treatment for petroleum?
- no antidote
- mineral oil to reduce absorption
- do NOT induce emesis
Detergents are not highly toxic but can irritate skin/mucous membranes. But detergents also contain builders, which do what?
chelate or precipitate Ca and Mg - caustic/hypoCa
how is detergent ingestion treated?
- no antidote
- dilute the agent - milk or vinegar to counter alkali
Methanol, an antiseptic, causes acidosis and blindness in humans. How does this compare to affects in animals?
do not see these effects in animals (more tetrahydrofolate in liver)
How do you treat bleach ingestions?
- demulcents, sucralfate
- flushing eyes if contact
what do acids cause at site of contact?
*coagulative* necrosis with lesions
Most acids will turn mucosa grey to black; except which acid which will turn it yellowish?
nitric acid - turns yellow
what is treatment for acid ingestion?
- emesis is CONTRA indicated
- gastric tube for aluminum hydroxide
- wash skin 20-30 min
Alkali are also caustic and cause what at site of contact?
- *liquefactive* necrosis; dissolves cell membranes
- (animals tend to avoid them, pain w/ingestion)
why should you delay esophageal examination if alkali ingestion suspected?
- irritation can lead to perforation;
- Thx rads may reveal perforation
how is alkali treated?
- emesis/lavage CONTRAindicated
- do NOT give any acids or water - exothermic reaction
- rinse eyes 20-30 min