Toxo MT, III

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Toxo MT, III
2013-03-12 19:48:54

Toxo MT, III
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  1. what toxicosis is colorless, odorless and lighter than air, causing rapid onset of dyspnea? what is another important finding associated w/this toxicosis?
    • carbon monoxide
    • "cherry red" blood
  2. what is a source of antibacterial toxicosis in feedlots? what is PM finding?
    • aminoglycosides
    • enlarged, pale edematous kidneys
  3. what substance is used in molasses and can be toxic to ruminants?
    urea and non-protein nitrogen
  4. In the rumen, urea converts to ammonia; does this happen more rapidly in acidic or alkaline environment?
    alkaline pH (optimum 7.7-8)
  5. what are clinical signs associated with urea and NPN? are signs rapid or delayed onset?
    • rapid onset (10min-3hr) - death within 3-4 days
    • salivation, colic, teeth grinding
    • spasms, staggering, bellowing
    • asphyxiation
    • PU/diarrhea
  6. what are PM findings with NPN and urea?
    • hepatomegaly w/friability
    • ammoniacal odor in rumen
    • acidosis
  7. how is urea/NPN toxicity treated?
    antidote = vinegar (acidifies rumen) + water
  8. what is the source of "bovine bonkers syndrome"?
    4-methylimidazole (ammonia related) from high quality forages
  9. what signs are associated with 4-methylimidazole?
    excitement; blepharospams, ear twitching w/in 24-36hr
  10. how is 4-methylimidazole treated? can ruminants recover?
    • no antidote
    • rapid recovery after food removed
  11. how do raw soybeans cause toxicity in ruminants?
    contain urease - results in excess ammonia release
  12. what clinical finding is very indicative of raw soybean toxicity? what surgery will help with this toxicty?
    • *pasty gray diarrhea* and rumen distention
    • rumenotomy if only few afffected
  13. what are the two main syndromes associated w/gossypol toxicity?
    • *sudden death*
    • *"thumping"* w/depression, dyspnea and cachexia in pigs, lambs, calves (young)
  14. what causes death from gossypol?
    irreversible hypokalemia leads to death
  15. what does gossypol cause in steers?
    • decreased heat tolerance
    • flabby hearts
    • hemoglobinuria
    • abomasitis
  16. what in the garbage can lead to poisoning that leads to tremors?
    • *mycotoxincs* from moldy peanuts, moldy spaghetti, moldy dairy
    • Penicillium prod. *penitrem A and roquefortine C* - inhibits glycine
    • mycotoxin - *verruculogen* - inhibits GABA
  17. grapes and raisins target which organ in dogs?
    kidneys - acute renal failure
  18. macadamia nuts cause what clinical symptoms in dogs?
    joint pain and hindlimb weakness
  19. what signs are seen with green walnut ingestion?
    • gastro-enteritis
    • convulsions 20-30 min post ingestion