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what toxicosis is colorless, odorless and lighter than air, causing rapid onset of dyspnea? what is another important finding associated w/this toxicosis?
- carbon monoxide
- "cherry red" blood
what is a source of antibacterial toxicosis in feedlots? what is PM finding?
- enlarged, pale edematous kidneys
what substance is used in molasses and can be toxic to ruminants?
urea and non-protein nitrogen
In the rumen, urea converts to ammonia; does this happen more rapidly in acidic or alkaline environment?
alkaline pH (optimum 7.7-8)
what are clinical signs associated with urea and NPN? are signs rapid or delayed onset?
- rapid onset (10min-3hr) - death within 3-4 days
- salivation, colic, teeth grinding
- spasms, staggering, bellowing
what are PM findings with NPN and urea?
- hepatomegaly w/friability
- ammoniacal odor in rumen
how is urea/NPN toxicity treated?
antidote = vinegar (acidifies rumen) + water
what is the source of "bovine bonkers syndrome"?
4-methylimidazole (ammonia related) from high quality forages
what signs are associated with 4-methylimidazole?
excitement; blepharospams, ear twitching w/in 24-36hr
how is 4-methylimidazole treated? can ruminants recover?
- no antidote
- rapid recovery after food removed
how do raw soybeans cause toxicity in ruminants?
contain urease - results in excess ammonia release
what clinical finding is very indicative of raw soybean toxicity? what surgery will help with this toxicty?
- *pasty gray diarrhea* and rumen distention
- rumenotomy if only few afffected
what are the two main syndromes associated w/gossypol toxicity?
- *sudden death*
- *"thumping"* w/depression, dyspnea and cachexia in pigs, lambs, calves (young)
what causes death from gossypol?
irreversible hypokalemia leads to death
what does gossypol cause in steers?
- decreased heat tolerance
- flabby hearts
what in the garbage can lead to poisoning that leads to tremors?
- *mycotoxincs* from moldy peanuts, moldy spaghetti, moldy dairy
- Penicillium prod. *penitrem A and roquefortine C* - inhibits glycine
- mycotoxin - *verruculogen* - inhibits GABA
grapes and raisins target which organ in dogs?
kidneys - acute renal failure
macadamia nuts cause what clinical symptoms in dogs?
joint pain and hindlimb weakness
what signs are seen with green walnut ingestion?
- convulsions 20-30 min post ingestion