Toxo MT, II

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  1. Metaldehyde is a polymer of what? what is it used for?
    • acetaldehyde
    • snail/slug bait
  2. what are clinical signs in small animals who ingest metaldehyde? how long is course of symptoms? is it fatal?
    • "shake n bake" = convulsionsand hyperthermia (110)
    • hyperesthesia, hypersalivation; acidosis
    • *apparent recovery* in 3-4 d. then die from liver failure
  3. what is treatment for metaldehyde?
    • no antidote
    • non specific tx (lavage; pentobarb/diazepam)
  4. paraquat is inactivated when bound to what?
    • when bound to clay by soil bacteria
    • and sunlight w/in 3 weeks
  5. what is target tissue for paraquat?
    • lung tissue (and kidney)
    • (low in superoxide dismutase so susceptible to superoxide produced by paraquat)
  6. when are signs of paraquat toxicity noted after ingestion? what are CS?
    • 3-7 days post ingestion
    • lungs and kidney; progressive dyspnea, halitosis and oral erosions
    • lung fibrosis; death in 8 days (*apparent recovery*)
  7. what are PM findings with paraquat?
    • pulmonary congestion; pneumomediastinum
    • mottled lungs that are hyperinflated; petechia in trachea
  8. how is paraquat treated? what are some treatments that are contraindicated?
    • no antidote
    • lavage is very recently ingested
    • fuller's earth to bind toxin to clay
    • *NO fluids* - aggravates edema; mannitol diuresis
    • *avoid oxygen* despite hypoxia
  9. what is first target organ seen with chlorates? what clinical signs will show up following this?
    • GIT signs first then methemoglobin (slow conversion)
    • tarry blood from orifices
    • occasionally sudden death
  10. how is chlorate toxicity treated?
    antidote for methemoglobinemia = IV methylene blue
  11. what is mechanism for phenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)?
    • uncouples oxidative phosphorylation
    • decreases ribonuclease synthesis
  12. what is an early effect of phenoxyacetic acid that is only seen in dogs?
    can affect muscle membranes - *myotonia* - posterior weakness
  13. how is phenoxyacetic acid treated?
    • no antidote
    • symptomatic - lavage/charcoal, fluids
  14. What is the chemical in "Round up" that is not very toxic but can cause transient irritation to eyes/skin? what is tx?
    • glyphosate
    • no antidote; remove source
  15. what is the fungicide also used in wood preservatives? what is target organ for toxic injury?
    • pentachlorophenol
    • rapidly absorbed by skin/GIT - acne, dermatitis - impaired liver/kidney - death
  16. how is pentachlorophenol treated?
    • no antidote
    • remove source and GI contents; cool animal
  17. what is the name for the highly toxic and banned compound tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD)? are they stable or labile in the environment?
    • dioxin
    • stable
  18. how does halogenation of dioxin affect it's toxicity?
    the more halogenated, the less toxic they become
  19. what is lethal dose of ethylene glycol in dogs?
    • ~4-6ml/kg (so ~75ml for 10kg dog)
    • ~1.5mg/kg in cats
  20. where is ethylene glycol metabolized and excreted?
    • liver and kidneys
    • some gets excreted by kidneys unchanged
  21. what part of ethylen glycol's metabolism is the basis for treatment?
    want to inhibit alcohol dehydrogenase so EG can't become glycoaldehyde
  22. what can be found in urine with ethylene glycol toxicity? why is this a problem?
    Ca oxalate crystals - cytotoxic to renal tubules
  23. what are the 3 phases of clinical signs associated w/ethylene glycol and when do they set in post ingestion?
    • 30min-6 or 12 hrs: CNS - depression; convulsions, PU/PD; acidosis
    • 12-24hr: cardiopulmonary signs - tachypnea from acidosis, PE, vomiting
    • 24hr+: hypoCa and renal failure (often oliguric)
  24. what are lab tests and diagnostic findings for ethylene glycol?
    • EGT kit (low SG <1.025)
    • hypoCa
    • increase anion gap >25mEq
    • hyperglycemia
    • fluorescent urine and crystalluria
  25. how is ethylene glycol treated in dogs v. cats?
    • dog: omepazole/4methylprazole
    • cat: alcohol/ethanol
    • both compete for/affiinity for alcohol dehydrogenase so fewer toxic metabolites produced
  26. Although infrequent, how is alcohol poisoning treated?
    4methylprazole (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor)
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Toxo MT, II
2013-03-12 23:49:02
Toxo MT II

Toxo MT, II
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