hb. nervous system

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hb. nervous system
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  1. CNS
    brain, spinal cord
  2. PNS
    12 pairs of cranial nerves

    31 pairs of spinal nerves
  3. somatic nervous system
    voluntary

    skeletal muscles
  4. autonomic nervous system
    involuntary

    smooth/cardiac muscles/glands

    sympathetic/parasympathetic
  5. cell body
    contains nucleus/organells

    main part
  6. dendrites
    many, short, branched fibers

    receives stimuli, carries message to cell body
  7. axon
    single, long fiber from cell body,

    carries message from cell body to other neuron/effector
  8. myelin shealth
    white fatty material,

    insulates/protects
  9. schwann cells produce?
    myelin shealth
  10. neurilemma
    outermost membrane on schwann cell

    damage nerves in PNS to regrow/repair within it
  11. oligdnedrocytes produce what?
    myelin shealth in CNS

    damage is permanent
  12. neuroglia cells
    protect, nourish, support

    do not transmit impulse

    regenerate when damage

    excessive brow- brain tumor
  13. astrocyte
    star shaped

    btwn neurons & blood vessels

    "blood brain barrier"
  14. microglia
    small

    phagocytic when pathogens invade or degeneration/inflammation of brain tissue
  15. oligondendrocyte
    hold nerve fibers together
  16. ependymal
    lines brain cell ventricles, central canal of spinal cord

    produces CSF
  17. nerve bundle in what?
    PNS,

    made of cranial/spinal nerves
  18. tract is a bundle in what?
    CNS

    located in brain/spinal cord, where transmit impulse to/from brain
  19. endoneurium
    surrounds individual fiber
  20. perineurium
    surrounds fascile
  21. epinerium
    surrounds whole nerve/tract
  22. polarization
    resting state

    potassium inside, sodium outside

    • inside is neg.
    • outside is pos.
  23. depolarization
    reversal of particle concentration on either side

    sodium rushes out making it positive inside
  24. repolorization
    return of neuron's membrane to normal

    potassium leaves

    act move sodium/potassium back to original concentration

    (potassium inside, sodium outside)
  25. neurotransmitter is released from?
    synaptic cell @ a junction called "synapse"
  26. neurotransmitter diffuses across a gap called?
    synaptic cleft
  27. neurotransmitter ataches to receptros on what?
    post-synaptic cell (a dendrite)
  28. epinephrine (adrenaline) released
    adrenal gland
  29. norepinerphrine (noradrenaline)
    adrenal gland
  30. acetylcholine released from
    neuron

    PNS regulates- skeletal, smooth, cardiac

    CNS- learning, memory
  31. dopamine released
    brain

    "Parkinson disease"
  32. serotonin released
    brain

    "mood, sleep, depression"
  33. histamine released
    tissue

    constricts bronchial smooth muscle, vasodilate small blood vessels,

    drop in bp,

    "immunity"
  34. endorphins & enkephalins released from
    brain

    "morphine like high"

    "exercise high"
  35. neurtransmitters leave synapse by
    diffusing into presynaptic neuron (reuptake)

    diffusing slowly away from synapse

    deactivated by enzymes
  36. reflex arc
    completely pathway through nervous system from stimuli to response
  37. dorsal horn
    sensory impulse enters spinal cord
  38. ventral horn
    motor impulse leaves spinal cord
  39. ventral root
    motor neurons attach to spinal cord
  40. dorsal root
    sensory neurons attach to spinal cord
  41. intervertebral formen
    opening where impulses leave spinal cord
  42. cervical plexus
    motor impulses to neck

    receive sensory impulses from neck, back of head

    "phrenic nerve"
  43. brachial plexus
    • nerve supply to shoulder, arm, forearm, wrist, hand
    • "radial nerve"
  44. lumbosacrail plexus
    nerve supply to legs, pelvis

    "sciatic nerve"
  45. meninges
    • dura- outermost
    • arachonid-middle layer
    • pia- innermost , blood supply
  46. cerebral aqueduct
    canal that connects 3rd n 4th ventricle
  47. choroid plexus
    produced by CSF

    filters blood & release additional secretions
  48. cerebral cortex
    outer layer of gray matter
  49. inner area
    made of white matter

    connects w/ other parts of brain

    • voluntary movement
    • conscious thought, memory, reasoning, abstract thinking
  50. longitudinal fissuer
    divides right/left sides (hemisphers)
  51. corpus callosum
    white matter connecting the hemispheres

    allows impulses to pass from one side to another
  52. gyri
    elevations
  53. sulci
    grooves
  54. central sulcus
    btwn forntal/parietal

    right angle to longitudinal fissuer
  55. lateral sulcsu
    separate temporal/frontal/parietal

    alongside each hemisphere
  56. frontal
    • anetior to central sulcus,
    • superior to lateral sulcus

    primary motor area- conscious control of voluntary skeletal muscle

    damage- motor aphasia
  57. parietal
    posterior to central sulcus, superior to later sulcus

    primary sensory area- receives interprets from sensory receptors

    estimate distance, size, shape
  58. parietal
    inferior to lateral sulcus, folding under hemispher

    auditory area- impulse form ear

    auditory receiving area- sounds from environment

    auditory association area- interprets sounds

    Wernicke area- speech comprehension

    olfactory- nose
  59. occipital
    posterior to parietal love, extends over cerebellum

    visual area- receiving & association area- come from retina in eye
  60. insula
    5th lobe,

    inside

    cant see from outside
  61. diencephalon
    between cerebrum, brain stem

    thalamus- sorts incoming sensory impulse

    hypothalamus- homeostasis, controls pituitary gland & parasympathetic, sympathetic divisionn of AS
  62. limbic system
    bordering diecephalon, cerebrum

    emotional state/behavior

    hippocampus- learning, long-term memory

    reticular formation- controls wakefulness/sleep, along brain stem

    links conscious functions of cerebral cortex w/ automatic brain stem
  63. midbrain
    superior section of brain stemp

    reflex of eye/ear

    visual/auditory integration

    connects cerebrum to other parts of brain/spinal cord

    cranial nerves 3 & 4 exit
  64. pons
    middle section

    connects cerebellum to other parts of brain/spinal cord

    respiratory centers (involuntary reflexes)

    cranial 5-8 exit
  65. medulla oblongata
    bottom part

    contralateral control

    vital centers- respiratory, cardiac, vasmotor- contraction of smooth muscle in blood vessels, regulates blood flow/bp

    cranial nerves 9-12 exit
  66. cerebellum
    "little brain"

    two hemispheres & vermis

    equilibrium/balance

    • produce smooth coordinated movements
    • maintains normal muscle tone

    disorders- tremors/jerky movements
  67. somatic motor impulse
    voluntary control of skeletal muscle
  68. visceral motor impulse
    involuntary control of glands, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle
  69. olfactory
    sensory

    sensation, smell
  70. optic
    sensory

    sensation, vision
  71. oculomotor
    sensory

    eye muscles
  72. trochlear
    motor

    one eye muscle
  73. trigeminal
    mixed

    sensation (pain, touch, temp)

    face (eyes, jaw,)

    mandibular, maxillary, opthalmic
  74. abducent
    motor

    one eye muscle
  75. facial
    mixed

    facial muscles, lacrimal glands, small salivary glands

    sensation of taste- 2/3 tongue
  76. vestibulcochlea
    sensory

    hearing/equilibrium

    from inner ear
  77. glossopharyngeal
    mixed,

    taste from posterior 1/3 of tongue

    • innervates parotid salivary gland
    • muscle involved in swallow
  78. vagus
    mixed

    inneravation- thoracic/abdominal cavitites
  79. accessory
    motor

    muscle of neck (trapeziuz, sternocledimastoid, larynx)
  80. hypoglossal
    motor

    tongue muscles
  81. cerebral palsy
    permanent, non-progressive disorder, affects motor control of brain, leads to paralysis

    spastic most common

    from brain trauma- before, during, after birth

    affects- arms, legs, one or both side
  82. diagnose & treatment of cerebral palsy
    mri, ct

    orthopedic devices, visual/hearing aides, muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants
  83. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (als)
    progressive neurmuscle disease, death of motor neurons

    "Lou Gehrig's disease"

    subtle initially, no effect on involuntary muscles

    generalized weakness, clumsiness, twitching/cramping, slurred speech, difficulty breathing
  84. diagnosis & treatment of ALS
    men more often, neuromuscular exam (weakness, atrophy, abnormally rapid knee-jerk reflex)

    electromyography- abnormal

    • nerve conduction velocity- slowed speed of nerve conduction, decreased muscle action potential
    •  
    • treatment- no cure, riluzole (Rilutek) to slow progression

    muscle relaxants, respiratory
  85. electroencephalograph (EEG)
    activity of cerebral cortex

    daginose sleep disorders, tumors, epilepsy, brain
  86. electromyography (EMG)
    signals in muscles,

    nerve damage
  87. nerve conduction velocity (NVC)
    how fast impulse travels thorugh anerve,

    done w/ an EMG
  88. myelogprahy
    radiopaque injected for an x-ray
  89. paralysis
    • paresis- partial
    • paralysis- complete
    • quadriplegia- all four, trunk,
    • paraplegia- lower
    • hemiplegia- one side/half of body


    from spinal cord/nerve/brain/ injury
  90. diagnose parlaysis
    neurological assessment, MRI, CT, myelogrpahy
  91. herniated disk
    inner material of disk protrudes outward

    from spinal trauma, intervertebral joint degeneration
  92. diagnose & treatment of herniated disk
    x-ray, MRI, CT myelography

    rest, PT, NSAIDS, analgesics, muscle relaxants, steroid injections, surgery
  93. peripheral neuritis
    degeneration of nerves

    • infection: bacterial (lyme disease,)
    • viral- varicella zoster virus
    • metabolic disease
    • toxins
    • vitamin deficiency
    • autoimmune disease (lupus, RA, Guillain-Barre syndrome)
  94. diagnosis & treatment of peripheral neuritis
    nerve conduction velocity, electromyography

    treatment- elimination of causative factors, supportive
  95. shingles (herpes zoster)
    viral infection along course of nerve

    reactivation of varicella-zoster (chicken pox)

    unilateral pain, burning of spine

    diagnose- clinical,

    treatment- antivirals
  96. acyclovir (Zovirax)
    famciclovir (Famivir)
    calacyclovir (Valtrex)

    is treatment for what?
    shingles (herpes-zoster)
  97. treatment of bell's palsy?
    • antivirals,
    • analgesics,
    • corticosteroids,
    • eye patch
  98. Guillain-Barre syndrome
    acute, rapidly progression autoimmune disorder

    attacks myelin on peripheral nerve, rare

    affects young

    bilateral muscle weakness, in legs ascends to upper body, paralysis, loss of reflexes, respiratory muscles
  99. diagnosis of guillian-barre syndrom
    • clinical
    • NCV
    • electromyography

    shows demyelination and slowed conduction

    csf shows increased protein
  100. treatment of guillian-barre syndrome?
    plasmapheresis (removes harmful plasma)

    high dose immunoglobulin medications

    mechanical ventilation
  101. occulta spina bifida
    spine do no close, menginges spinal cord don't protrude
  102. meningocele spinal bifida
    meninges protrude, requires surgery
  103. myelomeningocel spina bifida
    meninges, spinal cord broth protrude growing a sac

    • lack of bladder/bowel control
    • lack of sensation
    • paralysis of legs
    • hydrocephalus
  104. diagnosis of spinal bifida
    prenatal- blood tests has trip/quadruple screen show high levels of alpha fetoprotein, a sonogram, amniocentesis

    post natal- surgery
  105. hydrocephalus
    CSF accumulates, causing compression/swelling of brain

    from fetal infections, developmental abnormalities, bleeding in brain, head/brain injury, spinal tumor

    treatment- shunt
  106. diagnosis of meningitis
    evaluation of CSF after lumbar puncture

    • viral- more common
    • bacterial- rare, more serious
  107. treatment of meningitis
    • antivirals
    • hospitalization w/ aggressive IV antibiotics
  108. encephalitis
    inflammation/swelling of brain, cause intervertebral hemorrhage/brain damage

    • viral- more common
    • bacterial- rare, more serious
  109. diagnosis of encephalitis
    EEG, MRI (swelling & increase in ICP (intracranial puncture)

    lumbar puncture (elevated CSF, ICP)
  110. treatment of encephalitis
    antivirals

    hospitalization w/ aggressive administration of IV antibiotics

    • antivonsulants- prevent seizures
    • corticosteroids- reduce swelling
    • sedatives
    • analgesics
  111. prevention of meningitis
    vaccination of Hib, pneumococcal
  112. prevention of encephalitis
    • vaccinations (MMR, varicells)
    • use of insect repellent
  113. partial/focal epilepsy
    one part of brain, no loss of consciousness

    simple- jerking, spasms, head turning, alters perception, no loss of awareness of surroundings

    complex- automatic, purposeless behaviors, loss of awareness of surroundings
  114. generalized local epipelpsy
    entire brain, loss of consciousness

    absence- brief loss of consciousness

    tonic lonic (grand mal)- tonic (loss of consciousness, muscle contraction, body stiffening) clinic (relaxation of muscles, tongue biting, incontinence of urinary/fecal, foaming of mouth) post-ictal (sleepiness, HA, confusion)
  115. status epipeticus
    one seizure follows another/w no recovery lasting 10-15 minutes

    • medical emergency
    • IV anticonvulsants
  116. diagnosis epipelsy
    EEG, MRI, CT
  117. anticonvulsants
    Tegretol-carbamazepine
    Klonopin-clonazepam
    Zarontin-ethosuximade
    Neuronin-gabapentin
    Lamictal-lamotrigen
    Luminal-phenobarbital
    Dilantin-phenytoin
    Topamax-topiramate
    Depakote, Depakene- valproid acide
    treats epilepsy
  118. what do u do w/ a person having a seizure
    • observe aura
    • cushion head
    • loosen neck attire
    • nothing in mouth
    • look for med alert ID
    • do not restrain them
    • stay/offer help
    • call 911 if it lasts more than 5 mins
  119. cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
    • stroke
    • 80 ischemic- occlusion of vertebral artery by atherosclerosis, thrombosis, emboli

    hemorrhage- sudden rupture of artery, HTN, aneurysm, head injury, blood dyscrasias
  120. treatment of CVA
    STAT IV thrombolytic called tissue plasminogen activator  (TPA)

    • anticoagulants, antiplatelet (ASA)
    • carotid endarterectomy, angioplasty
    • stend
  121. alzheimers disease
    chronic, brain, deterioration, neurons in cerebral cortex die replaced by plaques & tangles
  122. diagnosis of alheimzer's disease
    dementia consistent w/ Alzheimer's disease

    neuropsychological testing- memory, problem solving, attention span, numeric/langue skills

    MRI, CT, Pet scan
  123. Aricept-donepezil
    Exelon-rivastigmine
    Razadyne-galantamine
    Namenda memantine (sever only)

    treatment for what?
    Alzheimer's Disease
  124. Parkinson's disease
    progressive, deficiency of dopamine in brain

    resting tremor- tremors of small muscle

    bradkinesai- slowing of motions
  125. diagnosis of Parkinson's disease
    neuroligcal exam- 2 of 3 cardinal Parkinson's symptoms- tremor, slowing of motion, muscle rigidity

    response to levodopa
  126. treatment of Parkinson's disease
    • levodopa/carbidopa (Sinemet, Atamet) is main treatment,
    • changes into dopamine
  127. pramipexole- Mirapex
    ropinirole-Requip
    bromocription-Parlodel
    pergoilide-Permax
    apomorphine-Apoxkyen

    dopamine antagonists treat
    Parkinson's disease
  128. antiviral (Symmetrel-amatadine)
    treat whatn?
    parkinson's disease
  129. anticholingergic medications (Cogentin-benztropine) treat
    parkinson's disease
  130. monoamine oxidase B inhibitos (MAO-B) treat
    parkinson's disease
  131. diagnosis of MS
    • neurological examinat
    • MRI-reveals lesions
    • evoked potential test- measure response to sensory stimulation, visual, auditory, general (slows w/ scaring)
    • lumbar puncture- indicates immune response w/I CNS
  132. treatment of MS
    immunomodulation medications - cause flu like symptoms, liver abnormalities
  133. Inteferon- Rebif, Abonex, Betaseron

    Copaxone-glatimramer
    Tysabri-natalizumba
    Novantrone-mitoxontrone (IV, ever 3 months, monitor heart function)

    treat what?
    MS
  134. Corticosteroids- skeletal muscle relaxants, PT, assistive devices help treat what?
    MS

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