Lab Quiz

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Lab Quiz
2013-03-13 02:36:50

Clinical lab quiz
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  1. WBC
    • White Blood Cells
    • 4.5-11.0 10³/µL
  2. HGB
    • Hemoglobin
    • 12-16 g/dl
  3. PLTS
    • Platelets
    • 140-440 10³/µL
  4. Neuts.
    • Neutrophils
    • 42-72 %
  5. Lymphs
    • Lymphocytes
    • 20-44 %
  6. Na
    • Sodium
    • 135-145 mEq/L
  7. K
    • Potassium
    • 3.5-5.1 mEq/L
  8. Glucose
    • Glucose
    • 70-110 mg/dl
  9. Ca
    • Calcium
    • 8.5-10.5 mEq/L
  10. Mg
    • Magnesium
    • 1.8-2.6 mEq/L
  11. BUN
    • Blood Urea Nitrogen - a measure of kidney function
    • 7-20 mg/dl
  12. Cr
    • Creatinine- a measure of kidney function
    • 0.8-1.4 mg/dl
  13. GFR
    • Glomerular Filtration Rate- a measure of kidney function.
    • > 60 mL/min
  14. UA
    Urine Analysis
  15. Which items are analyzed in a UA?
    • Color
    • Clarity
    • Specific Gravity
    • Protein
    • Glucose
    • Ketones
    • Blood
    • Nitrate
    • RBC's (Red Blood Cells)
    • WBC's (White Blood Cells)
    • Bacteria
    • Epithelial Cells
  16. UA: color?
  17. UA: Clarity?
  18. UA: Specific Gravity?
  19. What does urine specific gravity mean?
    It is the density or concentration of urine
  20. UA: Glucose?
  21. UA: Ketones?
  22. What are Ketones?
    • 1) They are chemicals resulting from the body metabolizing fat.
    • 2) They cause acidosis...a reduction in blood pH
    • 3) They increase in persons with untreated or inadequately controlled diabetes mellitus.
  23. UA: Blood?
  24. UA: Nitrate?
  25. UA: RBC's?
  26. UA: WBC's?
  27. UA: Bacteria?
  28. UA: Epithelial Cells?
  29. AST (aspartate aminotransferase)
    • This is an enzyme in the blood and is normally found in red blood cells, liver, heart, muscle tissue, pancreas, and kidneys. Low levels are normally found in the blood. When body tissue or an organ such as the heart or liver is diseased or damaged, additional AST is released into the bloodstream. The amount of AST in the blood is directly related to the extent of the tissue damage.
    • The AST test may be done at the same time as a test for alanine aminotransferase, or ALT. The ratio of AST to ALT sometimes can help determine whether the liver or another organ has been damaged. Both ALT and AST levels can test for liver damage.
  30. ALT (alanine aminotransferase)
    • This is an enzyme in the blood and is found mainly in the liver, but also in smaller amounts in the kidneys, heart, muscles, and pancreas. ALT is measured to see if the liver is damaged or diseased. Low levels of ALT are normally found in the blood. But when the liver is damaged or diseased, it releases ALT into the bloodstream, which makes ALT levels go up.
    • Most increases in ALT levels are caused by liver damage.
    • The ALT test is often done along with other tests that check for liver damage, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and bilirubin. Both ALT and AST levels are reliable tests for liver damage.
  31. Bilirubin
    • A bilirubin test measures the amount of bilirubin in a blood sample. Bilirubin is a brownish yellow substance found in bile. It is produced when the liver breaks down old red blood cells. Bilirubin is then removed from the body through the stool (feces) and gives stool its normal brown color.
    • When bilirubin levels are high, the skin and whites of the eyes may appear yellow (jaundice). Jaundice may be caused by liver disease (hepatitis), blood disorders (hemolytic anemia), or blockage of the tubes (bile ducts) that allow bile to pass from the liver to the small intestine
  32. ALP (alkaline phosphatase)
    • This is an enzyme in the blood. It is made mostly in the liver and in bone with some made in the intestines and kidneys. It also is made by the placenta of a pregnant woman.
    • The liver makes more ALP than the other organs or the bones.
    • Some conditions cause large amounts of ALP in the blood. These conditions include rapid bone growth (during puberty), bone disease (osteomalacia or Paget's disease), vitamin D deficiency, or damaged liver cells.
  33. Albumin
    The major protein in the blood. It is made mainly in the liver. It helps keep the blood from leaking out of blood vessels. Albumin also helps carry some medicines and other substances through the blood and is important for tissue growth and healing.
  34. Amylase
    • This is an enzyme produced by the pancreas and the salivary glands (P&P = pancreas and parotid).
    • Normally, only low levels of amylase are found in the blood. But if the pancreas or salivary glands become damaged or blocked, more amylase is usually released into the blood.
  35. Lipase
    • This is an enzyme produced by the pancreas.
    • High amounts of lipase may be found in the blood when the pancreas is damaged or when the tube leading from the pancreas (pancreatic duct) to the beginning of the small intestine is blocked
  36. Cardiac enzymes
    Cardiac enzymes are proteins from heart muscle cells that are released into the bloodstream when heart muscle is damaged, such as during a myocardial infarction (MI). If cardiac enzymes are elevated it is possible heart muscle has been damaged.
  37. CK (Creatine Kinase)
    CK is released into the bloodstream 4 to 6 hours after heart cell damage occurs, and peak blood levels of CK are seen after 24 hours. Elevated CK levels usually, but not always, indicate heart muscle damage. CK levels sometimes can be increased with damage to other kinds of cells as well such as skeletal muscle.
  38. Troponin
    Troponin is released into the bloodstream 2 to 6 hours after heart cell damage, and blood levels peak in 12 to 26 hours. Elevated levels of T are regarded as a more reliable indicator of heart muscle damage than elevated CK levels.
  39. CK-MB
    This is Creatine Kinase isoenzyme MB which is specific to heart muscle. Measuring this can help determine the extent and timing of heart damage.
  40. BNP (brain natriuretic peptide)
    • This is a hormone secreted by the ventricles of the heart in response to excessive stretching of heart muscle cells.
    • Normally only a low level is found in blood, but is elevated in heart failure.
  41. PT (prothrombin time)
    Measures clotting time, the longer the time the slower the clot forms. The dosage for warfarin (Coumadin) therapy is based on the PT and the INR. For therapeutic anticoagulation, the PT is usually kept at 1.5-2.0 times normal.
  42. INR (International Normalized Ratio)
    Measures clotting time, the greater the ratio the longer the time it takes for a clot to form. For therapeutic anticoagulation, the INR is usually kept at 2.0-3.0.
  43. aPTT (activated partial thromboplastin time)
    Measures clotting time, the longer the time the slower the clot forms. The effect of heparin therapy is monitored with aPTT. The therapeutic goal is 1.5-2.0 times the control.