A vulnerability assessment is the process of identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing the vulnerabilities in a system.
What is Vulnerability Scanning?
It is an automated software search that scans through a system for any know security threats and then crates a reports of these potential exposures
What is Black Box Testing?
The tester has no prior knowledge of the network infrastructure. The tester must first determine the location, types of systems and devices, also techniques such as social engineering tricks can be used
What is White Box Test?
Tester has in-depth knowledge of the network and systems being tested, including network diagrams, IP addresses, and even source code of custom applications
What is Gray Box Test?
Sits between black and white box test, some limited information has been provided to the tester.
Describe 2 processes that could be used in a reconnaissance attack?
Ping sweeps, Port scans, Packets sniffers, Internet information queries
Ping sWeeps: Scans to determine which range of IP addresses map to live hosts
Port scan: Consist of sending a message to each port, one port at a time
What is trust exploitation as know in access attacks?
Trust exploitation is type of access attack that refers to an individual taking advantage of a trust relationship within a network
What is DOS attack?
DoS attacks prevent authorized people from using a service by using up system resources.By overloading system resources, DoS and DDoS attacks crash applications and processes by executing exploits or a combination of exploits
Provide a suitable mitigation technique against man-in-the-middle-attacks?
Man in the middle attacks can be effectively mitigated only through the use of cryptography (encryption)
Define CIA of computer security?
Authentication: message is not a forgery and does actually come from whom it says
Integrity: Guarantee that no one intercepted the message and altered it
Confidentiality: If message is captured it cannot be dechipered
Provide a suitable example for each of the CIA category?
Authentication: An ATM Personal Information Number (PIN) is required for authentication. The PIN is a shared secret between a bank account holder and the financial institution.
Confidentiality: Julius Caesar send messages using its own encryption method, even if the message was intercepted enemies could not read or decipher the message
Integrity: An unbroken wax seal on an envelop ensures integrity.The unique unbroken seal ensures no one has read the contents.
Describe the 3 elements of a security posture?
1) Initial baseline configureation: Standard checklist against which systems are evaluated
2) Continous Security Monitoring:Continual observation of systems and networks through vulnerability scanning and penetration testing should provide information on current state of preparedness.
3) Remediation: As vulnerabilities are exposed through monitoring, there must be a plan in place to address the vulnerabilities before they are exploited.
What is Penetration Testing?
Designed to exploit any weakness in systems that are vulnerable, PT takes place outside the security permiter, can disrupt the operation of devices becuase it is actively probing