defense 1 and 2

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jam110007
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defense 1 and 2
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2013-03-13 03:56:06
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defense 1 and 2
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  1. in general, what is the role of immune response
    • - defend against infection by microbes
    • - immune surveillance [checking and trying to see if anything is out of wack]
    • - eliminate damaged cells [machanisms to eliminate tagged and damaged cells]
  2. what are some negative aspects to immune response
    • - allergies
    • - autoimmune disease
    • - transplant rejection
  3. lymphatic system consists of what?
    • - lymph
    • - lymphoid tissues/organs
    • - primary and secondary organs
  4. lymphatic system functions
    • - body fluid homeostasis
    • - immune system
  5. lymph
    • derived from interstitial fluid - the blind ended lymphatic capillaries will pick up interstitial fluid and make sure that the excess fluid that got filtered from the capillaries ends up back into the circulatory system
    • - can pick up pathogens, protein, fluids
  6. lymphatic vessels
    • start at the blind ended capillaries and pick up interstitial fluid
    • - move to bigger vessels called trunks and bigger vessels called ducts
    • - ends up draining into one of the subclavian veins, which means were back into the systemic venous system and on our way into the vena cava and the right heart***
  7. lymphoid organs/tissues function
    inspects if anything is wrong
  8. primary lymphoid organs consist of what?
    • - bone marrow
    • - thymus
  9. secondary lymphoid organs consists of what?
    - lymph nodes, spleen, peyers patches, tonsils
  10. how is the lymphatic system organized?
    it goes from very organized to very diffuse
  11. bone marrow function
    • - production of all lymphocytes
    • - maturation of B lymphocyte
  12. thymus function
    maturation of T lymphocytes
  13. what does maturation refer to
    it refers to lymphocytes gaining their specific receptors - now they are immunocometent
  14. lymph nodes consists of what?
    • - fibrous capsule and partitions
    • - afferent and efferent lymphatic vessels 
    • - macrophages 
    • - filters [99% antigens removed, processed]
    • - dendritic cells
  15. what differentiates lymph nodes from nodules
    nodes contain fibrous capsules and partitions while nodules are more unorganized
  16. afferent and efferent lymphatic vessels
    carries lymph to and away from the nodes towards the venous system
  17. macrophages
    are giant phagocytes that can chew off non speccifically and get ride of debris and foreign cells
  18. dendritic cells
    non specific cells that can explore and crawl around - can recognized unwanted things and get ride of them
  19. lymphatic nodules
    • - are packed in connective tissues 
    • - no capsule
    • - found in connective tissue under epithelium of respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts
  20. why are lymphatics nodules found in connective tissue under epithelium of respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts?
    b/c they all have some type of exposure to the outside
  21. what does "GALT" stand for
    Gut Associated Lymphatic tissue
  22. what does "MALT" stand for?
    Mucous Associated Lymphatic Tissue
  23. spleen function
    • - removes RBCs
    • - stores FE 
    • - may initiate immune response
  24. cell mediated immune response include which lymphocytes?
    • - neutrophils
    • - basophils
    • - eosinphil
    • - monocytes
    • - lymphocytes
  25. neutrophils roles in cell mediated responses?
    • - initiates inflammation and phagocytosis 
    • - can become megacytes
  26. basophils role in cell mediated responses
    - produces histamine and heparin
  27. eosinphils role in cell mediated responses?
    defend against parasitic worms
  28. monocytes role in cell mediated responses
    become macrophages
  29. lymphocytes role in cell mediated responses
    paticipate in specific immune
  30. which lymphocytes are used in cell mediated response
    Mature T cells
  31. which lymphocytes are used in antibody immunity
    B cells
  32. plasma cells role?
    they come form B cells and are known as antibody factories
  33. mast cells role
    secrete histamine but unlike basophils, mast cells are fixed and cannot move
  34. detoxification usually occurs where>
    the liver
  35. non-specific defenses function
    • - non specific recognition of idenity of foreign cell matter (antigen)
    • - same response regardless of stimulus 
    • - prevention first
  36. non-specific defenses roles
    • 1) “First Line” – physical/chemical barriers
    • 2) Inflammation
    • 3) Role of phagocytes
    • 4) Complement System
    • 5) Immunological Surveillance [NK cells]
    • 6) Antimicrobial proteins (Interferons)
    • 7) Fever
  37. non-specifc - first line response
    • • Skin and mucous membranes =physical barrier
    • • Variety of protective chemicals
  38. what are the chemicals used in first line non-specific response
    • – Acidity of skin
    • – Gastric HCl; proteolytic enzymes
    • – Lysozyme of saliva
    • – Sticky mucous
    • – Ciliated mucosa of respiratorysystem
    • – “Friendly” microorganisms(E. coli)
    • – Macrophages
  39. sequence of inflammation
    1. entry of bacteria into tissue, injury to tissues causes release of chemicals to initiate the following events

    2. vasodilation of the microcirculation in the infected area, leading to increased blood flow

    3. large intestine in protein permeability of the capillaries and venules in the infected area, with resulting diffusion of the protein and filtration of fluid into the interstitial fluid

    4. chemotaxis: movement of leukocytes from the venules into the interstitial fluid of the infected area

    5. destruction of bacteria in the tissue either through phagocytosis or by other mechanism

    6. tissue repair
  40. what can set off inflammation
    • - physical trauma
    • - intense heat
    • - irritating chemicals
    • - infected pathogens
  41. how does inflammation prevent pathogenic organisms from spreading>
    it walls off the area
  42. what are the chemical alarms of inflammation?
    • - histamine 
    • - kinins
    • - prostaglandins
    • - complement
    • - cytokines
  43. histamines
    • - released by basophil and mast cells 
    • - vasodilation, increased capillary permeability
  44. kinins
    - vasodilation, capillary permeability; also chemotaxis; stimulated neutrophils, induce pain
  45. prostaglandins
    - sensitize blood vessels to effect of other mediators; pain
  46. cytokines are self what?
    self chemicals and self signal
  47. how are phagocytes mobilized
    • • Neutrophils enterbloodstream
    • • Margination (“pavementing”)
    • • Diapedesis– Neutrophils cross capillary wall
    • • Chemotaxis
  48. complement system is activated via what?
    cascade
  49. what are the classical system two pathways for activation
    • - classical 
    • - alternative
  50. complement system once activated
    • – Amplify all aspects of inflammation
    • – Directly lyse target cells via “membrane attack complex”– Opsonization
    • – to enhance phagocytosis (through chemotaxis)
  51. is complement system specific or non-specific
    it is nonspecific but plays a role in specific mechanism
  52. classical pathway
    Antigen-antibodycomplex initiates“complement fixation”
  53. describe complement system C3b
    C3b will now attach to the target (bacterium) [the one thats been tagged with the antibody] and will cause the rest of the compliment proteins to form a core called the membrane attack complex (MAC). lysis them occurs
  54. alternative pathway
    – Polysaccharides on cellsurfaces of certainfungi and bacteria

    certain bacteria and fungi can turn on a complement pathway all by themselves- without having to be tagged - through the factors secreted by the bacteria
  55. function of the complement system
    • – Increase/enhanceinflammation
    • – Kill bacteria, other cells
    • – Mechanism for eliminationof “tagged” antigen(result of antibodymediatedimmuneresponse
  56. C3b functions as
    opsonin
  57. Natural Killer Cells
    • - part of the immunologial surveillence 
    • - Bind directly and nonspecificallyto virus-infectedcells and cancer cells to killthem.
    • - don't have specific receptors to recognize the specific bacteria or antigen
    • - but can notice unusual things, bind to them, and kill them
  58. Antimicrobial Proteins: Interferons
    • Protein family w/ antiviral effects
    • – Host (not virus) specific
    • – Interfere w/ viral replication, stimulate NK cells, stimulate macrophages
  59. Fever
    • - pyrogenes causes the Resetting of hypothalamicthermostat
    • -
  60. fever adaptive value
    • – Interferes with bacterialreplication
    • – Increased MR speeds updefensive reactions and repair
  61. antibody mediated defends against what?
    • - specific response 
    • -  Defends against free bacteria and viruses in body fluids
  62. Cell-mediated defends against what?
    Defends against abnormal cells (i.e., cells transformed by cancer,viral infections; foreign cells)
  63. what are the three stages of specific response
    • 1) Antigen encounterand recognition bylymphocyte
    • 2) Lymphocyteactivation and clonalexpansion
    • 3) Attack
  64. stage 2 and of specifc response requires what?
    helper t cells
  65. what are the forms of immunity in specific response
    innate immunity  and aquired immunity
  66. what are the three types of T cells
    • • Cytotoxic T cells
    • • Helper T cells
    • • Suppressor T cells
  67. Cytotoxic T (TC) cells
    • – Effectors for cell-mediatedimmunity
    • – Attack infected/transformed cells
    • – CD8 receptors
  68. Helper T (TH) cells
    • – Regulatory function in both cellmediatedand antibody-mediatedimmunity
    • – CD4 (T4) receptors
  69. Suppressor T cells
    • – Inhibit B and T cells
    • - they suppress both antibody-mediated and cell-mediated resposes
  70. B cells Carry out what?
    Carry out antibody-mediated(humoral) immunity
  71. how does the lymphocyte do recognition / recognizes its antigen?
    by their receptors
  72. T Cell Receptors
    – Two-chained proteins, whichcannot bind (“see”) antigen unlessAg is complexed to MHC “self”proteins (“processing” of Ag)

    – Cytotoxic T cells – CD8 receptors

    – Helper T cells – CD4 receptors
  73. B Cell Receptors
    Immunoglobulin (Ig)attached to B cell– Ig is a copy of antibodythat cell can produce.
  74. Antibody
    • – Specific defense protein secreted byspecific B lymphocytes
    • – “Y” shape
    • – Variable regions binds Ag
    • – Constant region involved in effectormechanism
  75. IgG
    • – “Typical” Ab (80%)
    • – Can cross placenta
  76. IgE
    Allergic responses
  77. IgD
    Functions unclear
  78. IgM
    First to appear after Ag
  79. IgA
    Saliva, tears; also colostrum;breast milk
  80. MHC Class I:
    • • On all nucleated cells
    • • Recognized by CytotoxicT cells (CD8 receptors)
  81. MHC Class II
    • • On macrophages, B cellsand dendritic cells
    • – “Antigen PresentingCells” (APCs) forhelper T cells

    • Recognized by helper Tcells (CD4 receptors)
  82. Antigen Processing
    • – Necessary for T cells to recognize Ag
    • – Ag must be taken into cell and complexed with MHC protein –then cell “presents” processed Ag (with MHC protein) onsurface.
    • – Which MHC protein is recognized depends on type of CDmarker is in T cell membrane
  83. Antigen Presentation
    • – Infected cells present antigen to cytotoxic T cells
    • – APCs present antigen to helper T cells
  84. Cytokines include
    • – Already mentioned: Interferons, CSFs
    • – Interleukins: IL-1; IL-2 and more
  85. Three Events are Required for the Activationof Helper T Cells
    1) Presentation of Ag boundto class II MHC proteinon an APC

    2) Costimulation: Thebinding of matchingnonantigenic proteins inmembrane of APC andhelper T cell

    3) APC secretes cytokinesthat act on helper T cell– IL-1– TNF
  86. Humoral (Antibody-Mediated) Immunity is considered primary or secondary response?
    primary
  87. Humoral (Antibody-Mediated) Immunity defends against what?
    Defends against freebacteria and viruses inbody fluids
  88. Effector Mechanisms in Antibody-Mediated Responses
    • • Antibodies tag antigen – donot directly destroy it
    • • Antibodies link taggedmicrobe to one or moreeffector (killing) mechanisms
    • • TOP figure illustrates directenhancement of phagocytosisby antibody
    • • BOTTOM figure illustratesactivation of the classicalcomplement pathway
  89. what is the secondary immune response?
    When challenged bysame antigen,memory cellsproduce a rapid andamplified immuneresponse
  90. Cell-Mediated Immunity defends against what?
    • Defends againstabnormal cells
    • – Cells transformed by viralinfection or cancer
    • – Foreign cells
    • – Fungi, protozoa
  91. Cell-MediatedDefense Response
    • Activated TC cells“roam” tissues, anddestroy other cellsdisplaying processedantigen
    • – Perforin
    • – Lymphotoxin
    • – Activate genes => apoptosis

    • • Memory TC cells arenot activated
    • • Remain available torespond to next“challenge” by same Ag
    • • Can produce immediate,amplified SecondaryImmune Response
  92. Central Role of Helper T cells
    • The cytokines released by activated specific Helper T cells are required for forming a clone of activated B or Cytotoxic T cells

    • Without clonal expansion – immune response stops at first(recognition) stage

    • TH cells required for most humoral as well as cellmediated immunity

    • Cytokines include IL-2 and Gamma Interferon
  93. Myesthenia Gravis
    Antibodies to AChreceptors
  94. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Antibodies to connectivetissue of joints
  95. Allergy
    • Hypersensitivity
    • – Allergens
    • – Anaphylaxis (Later
  96. HIV / AIDS

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