resp 1

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Author:
jam110007
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206971
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resp 1
Updated:
2013-03-13 04:47:37
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resp
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resp 1
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  1. Respiratory System Functions
    • – Gas Exchange:• Provide O2• Eliminate CO2
    • – Regulate blood pH
    • – Speech
    • –Defense
  2. major components of the respiratory system: upper respiratory
    • • Nose, sinuses
    • • Pharynx
  3. major components of the respiratory system: Lower Respiratory Tract
    • • Larynx
    • • Trachea
    • • Bronchial Tree
    • • Thoracic Cavity
  4. Conducting Zone
    • – Nose, nasal cavity
    • – Pharynx
    • – Larynx
    • – Trachea
    • – Bronchi
    • – Bronchioles => Terminal Bronchioles
  5. Respiratory Zone
    • – Respiratorybronchioles
    • – Alveolar Ducts
    • – Alveoli
  6. function of nose and sinuses
    • Function to moisten, warm and filter incoming air. “Air conditioning”
    • - also filtering stuff out
  7. Pharynx function
    Common to respiratoryand digestive systems
  8. Trachea (Conducting Zone)
    • – Incomplete cartilage rings
    • – Pseudostratified ciliated columnarepithelium
    • - has a mucous escalator - goblet cells makes the mucous which traps particle and moves it up towards the pharynx
  9. Trachea (Conducting Zone) function
    Removed inhaled debris. Also are mucus-secreting Goblet cells inthis epithelium
  10. Bronchi cannot do what?
    contrict
  11. Bronchi consists of what?
    • – Primary Bronchi
    • – Secondary Bronchi
    • – Tertiary Bronchi
  12. Bronchioles can do what?
    contrict and dilate
  13. Tissue Transitions from PrimaryBronchi to Terminal Bronchioles:
    – Cartilage: cartilage plates => no cartilage

    – Epithelium: ciliated => cuboidal,non-ciliated

    – Smooth Muscle: increasingamounts – most in bronchioles.Bronchiolar diameter candecrease (bronchoconstriction)or increase (bronchodilation)
  14. Type I Alveolar Cells
    • simple squamous epithelium cells
    • - one layer
    • - allows for gas exchange
  15. Type II Alveolar Cells
    • cuboidal epithelium cells- make surfactant
    • - required for your lungs to expand
    • - lots of alveolar macrophages present
  16. Respiratory Membrane
    site of exchange (the surface across which the gasses have to move) - includes the epithelial cells of the alveoli plus the pulmonary capillary endothelium cells which are also simple squamouns epithelium better answer: consists of alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basal laminas.*Gas exchanges occurs by simple diffusion across the respiratory membrane.

    • Barrier between air (alveolus) and blood (capillary) is ~ .2 micron. (RBC diameter = .7 micron.)

    • Surface area of respiratory membrane = area of tennis cour
  17. Thoracic Cavity consists of what?
    • - Thorax
    • - Pleural Sac
  18. Thorax
    • – Thoracic vertebrae
    • – Ribs (+ intercostalmuscles)
    • – Sternum
    • – Diaphragm = “floor”
  19. Pleural Sac consists of what
    • – Double (serous)membrane
    • – Visceral pleura
    • – Parietal pleura
    • – Intrapleural fluid
  20. Intrapleural Pressure
    – Pressure in intrapleural fluid,about 4 mm Hg less thanPATM (and up to ~ 7 mm Hgless during inspiration)
  21. Transpulmonary Pressure
    • (PTP = PALV – PIP)*
    • – Pressure across lung wall
    • – Holds lungs open
  22. Pneumothorax
    • • Gunshot or stab woundto chest wall à“Sucking Wound” andcollapse of lung
    • • SpontaneousPneumothorax – smalltear in lung
  23. Diaphragm is innervated by what?
    (C3-C4)
  24. Physical Factors Influencing Pulmonary Ventilation
    • • RespiratoryPassageway Resistance
    • • Diameter ofbronchioles
  25. Diameter of bronchioles
    • – Controlled by smoothmuscle
    • – Parasympatheticstimulation: constricts
    • – Sympatheticstimulation; EPI: dilatebronchioles
  26. Asthma
    • • Increased smoothmuscle constriction (andairway constriction) => increased resistance toairflow
    • • Increased mucus
    • • Smoke, stress, exercisecan exacerbate
  27. Factors Determining Lung Compliance
    • • Lung elasticity
    • • Alveolar surface tension
    • • Surfactant
  28. surfactant is produced by what?
    type II(cuboidal) alveolarepithelial cells
  29. Factors Decreasing Compliance
    • • Anything decreasing lung elasticity
    • • Obstructions of bronchi or
    • • Increased surface tension ofalveolar fluid– Respiratory Distress Syndrome
    • • Decreased elasticity of chest wall/flexibility of thorax smallpassageways

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