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  1. I.                   Reform in Great Britain
    new elections
    • a.      1830: new parliamentary elections brought Whigs to power in Britain
    •                                                               i.      At same time, successful July Revolution in France catalyzed change in Britain
    • 1.      Industrial revolution led to industrial leaders who objected to corrupt British electoral system, which excluded them from political power
  2. I.                   Reform in Great Britain
    Whigs realized
    • a.      Whigs realized concessions to reform were superior to revolution; the demands of the wealthy industrial middle class could no longer be ignored
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      1830: Whigs introduced an election reform bill that was enacted in 1832 after an intense struggle
  3. Reform Act
    • a.      The Reform Act of 1832
    •                                                               i.      Gave explicit recognition to changes wrought in British life by Industrial Revolution
    •                                                             ii.      Disenfranchised 56 rotten boroughs and enfranchised 42 new towns and cities and reapportioned others, giving new industrial urban communities some voice in government
    •                                                           iii.      Property qualification for voting was retained; so the number of voters increased from 478k to 814k
  4. Reform act benefited... change...
    •                                                               i.      Benefited upper middle class; the lower middle class, artisans, and industrial workers had no vote
    •                                                             ii.      Change didn’t alter composition of House of Commons
    • 1.      Commons chosen in the first election after the Reform Act was the same
    • a.      Still, industrial middle class had been joined to landed interests in ruling Britain
  5. New reform Legislation
    •                                                               i.      1830s and 1840s witnessed considerable reform legislation
    • 1.      Aristocratic landowning class was usually the driving force for legislation that halted some of the worst abuses in the industrial system by instituting government regulation of working conditions in the factories and mines
    • a.      Industrialists and manufacturers now in Parliament opposed such legislation and were driving forces behind legislation favoring economic liberalism
  6. Poor Law of 1834
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Poor Law of 1834 based on theory that giving aid to poor and unemployed only encouraged laziness and increased the number of paupers
    • 1.      Poor Law tried to remedy this by making paupers so wretched they would choose work
    • 2.      Those not able to support selves were crowded in workhouses where conditions were miserableà people want to find work
  7. Repeal of hte Corn Laws
    • 1.      Work of Richard Cobden and John Bright, who formed the Anti-Corn Law League in 1838 to help workers by lowering bread prices
    • a.      Abolishing the corn laws would aid the industrial middle classes, who favored principles of free trade
    • 2.      Repeal came in 1846 when Robert Peel, leader of Tories, persuaded some of his associates to support free trade principles and abandon the Corn Laws
  8. Major Crisis in Britain
    •                                                               i.      Major crisis in Britain:
    • 1.      On continent, middle-class liberals and nationalists were at forefront of the revolutionary forces
    • 2.      In Britain, the middle class was satisfied by Reform Act and repeal of Corn Laws
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2013-03-13 10:36:06
HON 122

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