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2013-03-13 06:43:03
HON 122

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  1. The Revolutions of 1848
    • a.      spite successes of revolutions in France, Belgium, and Greece, the conservative order remained in control of much of Europe
    •                                                               i.      But liberalism and nationalism continued growing
    • 1.      1848: these forces of change eruptedà revolution in France provided spark for other countries, and son most of central and southern Europe was ablaze with revolutionary fires
  2. Another FR
    • a.      another French Revolution
    •                                                               i.      A severe industrial and agricultural depression beginning in 1846 brought great hardship to French lower middle class, workers and peasants
    • 1.      1/3 workers in Paris unemployed by 1847
    • 2.      Scandals, graft, corruption were rife, and government’s persistent refusal to extend suffrage angered middle class
  3. Louis-Philippe's gov
    •                                                               i.      As Louis-Philippe’s government continued to refuse to make changes, opposition grew
    • 1.      Radical republicans and socialists, joined by upper middle class under Adolphe Thiers, agitated for dismissal of Guizot
    • a.      Since they were forbidden by law to stage political rallies, they used the political banquet to call for reforms
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Almost seventy banquets held in France during winter of 1847-1848; a grand banquet was planned for Paris on Feb 22
  4. Gov. forbade
    • 1.      Government forbade ità people came anyway; students and workers threw up barricades in Paris
    • 2.      Although Louis-Philippe now proposed reform, he couldn’t form another ministry and abdicated on Feb 24 and fled to Britain
    • a.      Provincial government was established by moderate and radical republicans; the latter even included Louis Blanc
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      The provincial government ordered that representatives for a constituent assembly convened to draw up a new constitution be elected by universal manhood suffrage
  5. Provincial gov
    •                                                               i.      Provincial government established national workshops under influence of Louis Blanck
    • 1.      As Blanc envisioned them, the workshops were to be cooperative factories run by workers
    • a.      Workshops primarily provided unskilled jobs for unemployed workers
  6. Cost of program
    • a.      Cost of program=burdensome to governmentà split between moderate republicans, who supported France, and radical republicans, whose main support came from the Parisian working class
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      In his elections for the National Assembly, 500 seats went to moderate republicans and three hundred to avowed monarchists, while the radicals gained only 100
  7. March to June
    •                                                               i.      March to June: number of unemployed enrolled in national workshops rose from 10,000 to 120,000, emptying the treasury and frightening the moderates, who responded by closing the workshops on June 23
    • 1.      The workers refused to accept this decision and poured into the streets
    • a.      Four days of bitter and bloody fighting by government forces crushed the working-class revolt
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Thousands were killed, and four thousand prisoners were deported to French colony of Algeria in N. Africa
  8. New COnstitution
                                                                  i.      New Constitution, ratified on November 4, 1848, established a republic (the Second Republic) with a unicameral (one-house) legislature of 750 elected by universal male suffrage for 3 years and a president, also elected by universal male suffrage , for four years
  9. Elections for Presidency
    1.      In elections for presidency in Dec 1848, four republicans who’d been associated with early months of Second Republic were resoundingly defeated by Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, his nephewà (4 years) Emperor Napoleon
  10. Revolutions in Germanic states
    •                                                               i.      News of Paris revolution in Feb 1848à upheavals in c. Europe
    • 1.      Cries for changeà German rulers promise constitutions, a free press, jury trials, and other liberal reforms
    •                                                             ii.      In Prussia, concessions made to appease revolutionaries
  11. King Frederick William IV
    • 1.      King Frederick William IV agreed to abolish censorship, establish a new constitution, and work for a united Germany
    • a.      Last promise had its counterpart throughout all the German states as governments allowed elections by universal male suffrage for deputies to an all-German parliament to meet in Frankfurt, the seat of the Germanic Confederation
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Its purpose: to fulfill a liberal and nationalist dream—the preparation of a constitution for a new united Germany
  12. Frankfurt Assembly
    • 1.      Frankfurt Assembly
    • a.      Dominated by well-educated, articulate, middle class delegates, many of them professors, lawyers, etc.
    • b.      When it came to rationalism, many were ahead of the times and certainly ahead of the governments of their respective states
    • c.       From the beginning, the assembly aroused controversy by claiming to be government for all of Germany
  13. Later embroiled in debate
    • a.      Later embroiled in debate over composition of new German state
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Supporters of Grossdeutsh solution wanted to include German province of Austria, while proponents of a Kleindeutsch solution favored excluding Austria and making the Prussian king the emperor of the new German state
  14. Problem solved...
    • 1.      Problem solved when Austrians withdrew, leaving the field to the supporters of the Kleindeutsch solution
    • a.      Their victory= short-lived as Frederick William IV refused assembly’s offer of the title of “emperor of the Germans” in March 1848 and ordered the Prussian delegates home
  15. Frankfurt Assembly soon disbanded
                                                                                                                                          i.      Although some members threatened force, they had no real means of compelling German rulers to accept the constitution they had drawn up= fail
  16. Upheaval in the Austrian Empire
    •                                                               i.      Had social, political, and nationalist grievances and needed only news of the revolution in Paris to encourage it to erupt in March 1848
    •                                                             ii.      Hungarian liberals under Louis Kossuth agitated for “commonwealth” status; they were willing to keep Habsburg monarch but wanted their own legislature
  17. Demonstrations
    • 1.      Demonstrations in Buda, Prague, and Vienna led to Metternich’s dismissal, and the arch symbol of the conservative order fled abroad
    • a.      In Vienna, revolutionary forces, carefully guided by educated and propertied classes, took control of the capital and insisted that a constituent assembly be summoned to draw up a liberal constitution
  18. Hungary
    • a.      Hungary was granted wish for own legislature, a separate national army, and control over its foreign policy and budget
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Allegiance to Habsburg dynasty was now Hungary’s only tie to Austrian Empire
    • b.      In Bohemia, Czechs demanded own government
  19. Emperor Ferdinand I and Austrian officials
    •                                                               i.      Although Emperor Ferdinand I and Austrian officials made concessions to please revolutionaries, they wanted to control again
    • 1.      Conservatives encouraged by divisions by divisions between radical and moderate revolutionaries and played on middle-class fear of working-class social revolution
  20. First Success
    • a.      First success came in June 1848 when military force under General Alfred Windischgratz ruthlessly suppressed Czech rebels in Prague
    • b.      In October, the death of the minister for war at hands of Viennese mob gave Windischgratz the pretext for attack on Viennaà radical rebels crushedà Ferdinand I agreed to abdicate in favor of his nephew, Francis Joseph I, who worked to restore imperial government in Hungary
  21. Austrian armies
    • 1.      Austrian armies couldn’t defeated Kossuth’s forces, and only due to Nicholas I, who sent 140,000 men Russian army to aid Austrians, did the Hungarian revolution get crushed in 1849
    • 2.      Revolutions in Austria failed too
    • a.      Autocratic government restored; emperor and propertied classes remained in control, and numerous nationalities subject to Austrian government
  22. REvolts in the Italian states
    •                                                               i.      Failure of revolutionary uprisings in Italy in 1830-1831 encouraged Italian movement for unification to take a new direction
    •                                                             ii.      Leadership of Italy’s Risorgimento= Giuseppe Mazzini, who founded Yong Italy in 1831
    • 1.      This group set its goal as the creation of united Italian republic
    • 2.      The Duties of Man
    • a.      Mazzini urged Italians to dedicate lives to Italian nation
  23. Support of women
    • 1.      Women supported him, especially Cristina Belgioioso
    • a.      Worked to bring about unification; pursued by Austrian authorities, she fled to Paris and started newspaper
  24. Dreams of Mazzini
    •                                                               i.      Dreams of Mazzini and Belgioioso seemed to be almost fulfilled when Italian states revolted in 1848
    • 1.      Starting in Sicily, rebellions spread northward as rulers granted constitution people
    • 2.      Citizens in Lombardy and Venetia also rebelled against Austrian overlords
  25. Venetians
    • a.      Venetians declared a republic of Venice
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      King of n. Italian state of Piedmont, Charles Albert, took up call and assumed leadership for a war of liberation from Austrian domination
    • 1.      His invasion of Lombardy= fail
    • a.      1849: Austrians reestablished complete control over Lombardy and Venetia
  26. Counterrevolutionary forces
    • 1.      Counterrevolutionary forces also prevailed throughout  Italy
    • a.      French forces helped Pope Pius IX regain control of Rome
    • b.      Elsewhere, Italian rulers managed to recover power on their own
    •                                                             ii.      Only Piedmont was able to keep liberal constitution
  27. Failures of 1848
    •                                                               i.      Throughout Europe in 1848, popular revolts had initiated revolutionary upheavals that led to formation of liberal constitutions and liberal governments
    •                                                             ii.      Successes lead to disasters for two reasons
    • 1.      Unity of revolutionaries made revolutions possibly, but divisions shattered their ranks
  28. Moderate liberals
    • a.      Except in France, moderate liberals from propertied classes didn’t extend suffrage to working classes who helped achieve revolutions
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      As radicals pushed for universal male suffrage, liberals pulled back
    • Concerned about property and security, they rallied to old ruling classes for order and due to fear of social revolution by workersà established governments regain power 
  29. 1848: nationalities
    • a.      In 1848, nationalities everywhere had revolted in pursuit of self-government
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Frightfully little was achieved as divisions among nationalities proved disastrous
    • 1.      Though Hungarians demanded autonomy from Austrians, at the same time they refused to do the same to their minorities—the Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs 
  30. Rather than unitiing,
    • a.      Rather than uniting, the minorities fought each other
    • b.      Austrian efforts to recover Hungarian provinces met with little success until they began to play off Hungary’s rebellious minority nationalities against the Hungarians