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  1. The Emergence of an Ordered Society: revolutionary upheavals in late 18th and 19th centuries made ruling elite nervous about __ and potential dangers to lives and property. At the same time, the influx of large numbers of people from countryside into rapidly growing cities had led to horrible living conditions, poverty, unemployment, and great social dissatisfaction. First half of 19th witnessed a significant __, especially against __. The rise of __ caused a severe reaction among middle-class urban inhabitants, who feared that the __. New __ soon appeared to defend the propertied classes from __ and __.
    • social disorder
    • increase in crime
    • property
    • property crimes
    • urban poor posed a threat to their security and possessions
    • police forces
    • criminals and social misfits
  2. New Political Forces
    • a.      The first major contribution of the 19th to the development of a disciplined or ordered society in Europe was a regular system of police
    •                                                               i.      Number of European states established civilian police forces—groups of well-trained law enforcement officers who were to preserve property and lives, maintain domestic order, investigate crime, and arrest offenders
    • 1.      Hoped that they would prevent crime
    • a.      That the new police existed to protect citizens eventually made them acceptable, and they were approved
  3. French Police
    •                                                               i.      Policing made first appearance in France in 1828
    •                                                             ii.      March 1829, the new police, known as serjents, became visible on Paris streets dressed in blue and lightly armed with a white cane during the day and saber at night, showing they were civilians, not military.
    •                                                           iii.      Not many police officers at first 85 (1829)-500 (1850)à4000
  4. British Bobbies
    •                                                               i.      British feared powers exercised by military or secret police in authoritarian Continental states and resisted the creation of a professional police force
    • 1.      Instead, Britain depended on a system of unpaid constables recruited by local authorities
    • a.      These local constables were incapable of keeping order, preventing crimes, or apprehending criminals
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      These jobs could be dangerous and involve incidents
  5. Failure
    a.      Failure of local constables led to new approachà 3000 uniformed police appeared on streets of London called bobbies after Sir Robert Peel, who introduced legislation that created the force
  6. First goal and demands
    •                                                               i.      First goal to prevent crime
    • 1.      Municipal authorities soon found that police were also useful for imposing order on working-class urban inhabitants
    • a.      On Sundays, they were called to clean up after Saturday night’s drinking
    •                                                               i.      Demands for better pay and treatmentà improved working conditionsà professionalism
  7. Spread of Police systems
    •                                                               i.      Police systems were organized throughout
    •                                                             ii.      After 1848 revolutions in Germany, a state-financed police force called the Schutzmannschaft, modeled after London police, was established for Berlin
    • 1.      Began as civilian body, but became more militaristically organized and used for political reasons
    • a.      Military nature reinforced by weapons: swords, pistols, brass knuckles
  8. Other approaches
    • a.      Other Approaches to the Crime Problem
    •                                                               i.      New police alleviated some fears about crime, reformers used other means
    • 1.      Some believed increase in crime related to dramatic increase n poverty
    • a.      Influenced by middle-class belief that unemployment was result of sheer laziness, European states passed poor laws that tried to force paupers to find work on own or enter workhouses that would make people so uncomfortable that they’d choose work
  9. Poor laws
    • 1.      Others argued that poor laws didn’t address real problem: poverty was due to moral degeneracy of lower classes
    • a.      Lower classes called “dangerous classes” because of perceived threat they posed to middle class society
  10. formation of institutes
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      This led one group of secular reformers to form institutes to instruct working classes in applied sciences in order to make them more productive members of society
    • London Mechanics’ Institute and Society for Diffusion of Useful Knowledge in Field of Natural Sciences, Technical Science, and Political Economy, founded in Germany
  11. Organized religion
                                                                                                                                          i.      British evangelicals set up Sunday schools to improve morals of working kids, and in Germany, evangelical Protestants established nurseries for orphans and homeless children, women’s societies for sick and poor care, and prison societies that prepped women for work in prisons
  12. Catholic Church
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Catholic Church tried same kind of work through revival of religious orders
    • 1.      Dedicated priests and nuns used spiritual instruction and recreation to turn young male workers away from moral vices of gambling and drinking and female workers from lives of prostitution
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2013-03-13 10:52:47
HON 122

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