Bio 265 Endocrine System

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Bio 265 Endocrine System
2013-03-14 14:28:57
Physiology Unit

Endocrine system
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  1. Which types of hormones use the cAMP second messenger system?
    Biogenic Amines and proteins
  2. 3 factors that determine a hormone target cell's activation/inactivation
    • blood levels of hormone
    • relative number of receptors on target cell
    • affinity of receptors for hormone
  3. Up-regulation
    target cells form more receptors in response to hormone
  4. down-regulation
    target cells lose receptors in response to hormone
  5. Which hormones circulate in the blood bound to plasm transport proteins
    steroids and thyroid hormone
  6. Permissive effect
    2 hormones required to activate 1 cell to produce effect
  7. synergistic effect
    2 or more hormones work together to produce the same effect, 1 hormone= less effect than with all of them
  8. antagonistic effect
    1 hormone counteracts anothers effects
  9. Humoral
    Secretion from cell in direct response to blood ion levels or levels of nutrients

    ex. glucose and insulin
  10. Neural
    sympathetic activation may override other endocrine controls

    ex. sympathetic NS & Adrenal glands
  11. Hormonal
    secretion in response to other circulating hormones

    ex. hypothalamus secretes hormones "releasing hormone"
  12. Tropic hormone
    stimulates other endocrine tissues
  13. Anterior pituitary gland makes what types of hormones?
  14. Anterior Pituitary gland produces what 6 Hormones?
    • Growth Hormone
    • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
    • ACTH
    • Follicle Stimulating Hormone
    • Luetinizing Hormone
    • prolactin (PRL)
  15. Growth Hormone Targets
    • Bone
    • skeletal muscle
    • adipose tissue
  16. Thyroid stimulating hormone targets
    thyroid gland
  17. ACTH targets
    Adrenal cortex
  18. Follicle stimulating hormone targets
    • ovaries
    • testes
  19. Luetinizing Hormone targets
    • Ovaries
    • Testes
  20. Prolactin targets
    mammary glands
  21. Growth Hormone
    promotes protein synthesis and encourages the use of fat for fuel
  22. Thyroid stimulating Hormone
    stimulates normal thyroid development
  23. ACTH
    stimulates the release of corticosteroids
  24. Follicle stimulating hormone
    stimulates egg or sperm production
  25. Leutinizing Hormone
    works with FSH to cause maturation of ovarian follicles, ovulation
  26. Prolactin
    stimulates milk production
  27. Posterior Pituitary gland produces
    • Antidiaretic Hormone
    • Oxytocin
  28. Oxytocin targets
    • Breasts
    • Uterus
  29. Oxytocin
    smooth muscle contraction
  30. Thyroid gland produces
  31. Calcitonin targets
  32. Calcitonin
    lowers blood calcium levels in children (inhibits osteoclast activity)
  33. Parathyroid gland produces
    parathyroid hormone
  34. Parathyroid hormone
    increases blood calcium and stimulates osteoclasts
  35. Adrenal Cortex consists of what 3 regions?
    • Zona glomerulosa
    • Zona fasciculate
    • Zona reticularis
  36. Zona glomerulosa produces
    mineralocoricoids (aldosterone)
  37. zona fasciculate produces
    glucocorticoids (cortisol)
  38. zona reticularis produces
    gonadocorticoids (androgens)
  39. Adrenal Medulla produces
    • epinepherine
    • norephinepherin
  40. Pancreas produces
    • glucagon
    • insulin
    • somatostatin
    • pancreatic polypeptide
  41. Female gonads produce
    • estogen
    • progesterone
  42. male gonads produce
  43. pineal gland produces
  44. thymus produces
  45. heart produces
    atrial natriuretic peptide
  46. GI tract produces
  47. placenta produces
    • chorionic gonatrphin 
    • estrogen
    • progeterone
  48. kidneys produce
  49. Skin produces
  50. Glycogenolysis
    break down of glycogen and glucose
  51. gluconeogenesis
    synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and non-carbohydrates
  52. hyperglycemia
    more glucose in blood
  53. hypoglycemia
    low blood glucose levels
  54. 3 signs of Diabetes Mellitus
    • Polyuria
    • polydipsia
    • polyphagia
  55. Fascia
    • sheet of connective tissue beneath skin around muscle
    • pathway for nerves and blood vessels
  56. superficial fascia
    • adipose and areolar connective tissue
    • stores fat for insulation and protection
  57. Deep Fascia
    dense irregular connective tissue
  58. epimysium
    wraps entire muscle
  59. perimysium
    covers fascicles, bundles of myofibers
  60. endomysium
    penetrates each fascicle, seperates myofibers
  61. tendon
    -mysium extend beyond to form a tendon, attach muscle to bones