Card Set Information
order of dominance based on activity of alleles protein product.
Alleles can be completely dominant or recessive.
or can display forms of incomplete dominance or co-dominance.
Network of interacting genes, produce molecule or compound as end product.
one haplo copy is enough to express wild type phenotype.
one copy is not enough to produce wild type phenotype.
loss of function mutation
decrease or complete loss of gene activity
gain of function mutation
alleles that have acquired a new function or are altered to express more activity than wild type allele.
complete loos of gene function
aka amorphic mutaion
partial loss of gene function aka hypomorphic mutation
dominant negative mutation
multimeric proteins composed of two or more polypeptides join together to form a functional protein. May suffer complete of partial loss
new gene activities not found in wild type
progeny has heterozygous phenotype different from each homozygous parent.
single gene mutations that cause death usually inherited as recessive mutants, recessive alles that only kill homozygotes
sex limited traits
sex has influences gene expression.May limitate expression on one sex but not the other. both sexes carry the genes for sex limited traits bt genes are expressed in only one sex.
sex influenced traits
phenotype corresponding to particular genotype differs depending on sex
delayed age of onset
some dominant lethal alles sidestep natural selection by not showing abnormalities till after they have a chance to reproduce.
phenotype consistent with genotype
certain genotype fails to produce corresponding phenotype.
traits for which nonpenentrant individuals occassionaly iccur
same genotyphe producess phenotypes that vary in the degree of expression of the allele of interest.
gene environmental interactions
resulf of the influence of environmental factors (NON GENETIC FACTOR)
alteration of multilple distinct traits of an organism by mutating a single gene
collaboration of multiple genes in producing a single phenotype
network of interacting genes produce a molecule of compound as final product
one gene one enzyme hypothesis
each gene produces an enzyme, each enzyme has a specific role that produces a phenotype.
test the ability of a mutant to execute each step of biosynthetic pathway , assembles steps in a pathway by determining the point in which the pathway is blocked in each mutant.
an allele of one gene modifies or prevents the expression of alleles at another gene
complementary gene interaction
requires genes to work in agreement to produce a single gene product
ability of two mutants with same mutant phenotype to produce progeny with wild type phenotype. More than one gene is involved in determining phenotype.
duplicate gene action 15:1
either encode same gene product, or encode gene products that have same effect in a single pathway or compensatory pathways.
dominant gene interaction
9:6:1 ratio of phenotypes of progeny in a dihybrid cross
homozygosity for a recessive allele at one locus can mask the phenotypic expression of a second gene.
dominant allele at one locus masks the expressio of alleles at a second locus
similar to dominant epistasis, but occurs when a
dominant allele of one gene
completely suppresses the phenotypic expression
alleles of another gene
mutations of different genes can produce the same, similar, or abnormal phenotypes.
mating of two organisms with same or similar abnormal phenotype can have offspring with wild type phenotype.
mutations that fail to complement one another consist of one or more mutant alleles of a single gene.
consist of mutants whose phenotypes fail to complement one another, and complement mutants in other complementation groups.