Patho

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Author:
srohleder
ID:
20703
Filename:
Patho
Updated:
2010-06-02 00:30:55
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Exam1
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  1. What type of tissue regenerates?
    Epithelial tissue
  2. What reversable cellular adaption results from increased cardiac demand?
    Hypertrophy
  3. Cellular adaption that causes calluses; reversable.
    Hyperplasia
  4. Pre-cancerous abnormal cells
    Dysplasia
  5. Malignant
    • Gains access to blood and lymph channels enableing matastasis; grows by invasion
    • Initiates the coagulation cascade
    • NON-CONTACT INHIBITION
    • Anaplasia - cells dont ressemble the cells of origin
  6. Benign
    • Grows
    • by expansion without invasion; usually encapsulated
    • Resemble tissues of origin
    • Usually slow/progressive growth; no metastasis
  7. Mechanisms of metastasis
    • The lymphatic system drawn in by the tumor passes subclone metastatic cells into the circulatory where they travel to other areas penetrate the blood vessel and start growing a secondary tumor
    • Initiates the inflammatory process
  8. Clinical manifestations associated with cancer
    • Fatigue
    • Emaciation
    • Wasting
    • Lack of energy
    • increased risk of infection - Nutrients are going to the tumor
    • Edema
  9. Modifiable risk factor for cancer
    • Diet
    • Excersise
    • Lifestyle
  10. Non-modifiable risk factor to cancer
    • Heredity
    • Environment
  11. Protoncogenes
    • Makes things grow
    • Like the gas pedal
  12. Cancer Grading
    • Grade may change
    • 1-4
    • 1 = most likely to resemble tissue of origin
    • 4 = usually anaplastic
    • Grading done by microscopic evaluation of how anaplastic the cells have become
  13. Cancer staging
    • Evaluated by the organ systems involved
    • Size of the tumor
    • Level and amount of metastasis
  14. Complications of chemotherapy
    • Immunosuppressant
    • Lack of drainage/infection
    • Nausea/Vommiting
    • Effects the most rapidly dividing cells
  15. Systemic effects of inflammation
    • Fever
    • Edema
    • Increased HR
    • Leukocytosis - increase in wbc's
    • Confusion
  16. Chemicals of inflammation
    • Histamines: makes the blood vessels more permeable/fast response, associated with serotonin and mast cells
    • Leukotrines/prostaglandins: increase vascular permeability/slow response
  17. Purpose of exudates
    • Dilutes out any toxin that will be released at the site of injury
    • Helps drain the lymphatic out of the area
  18. Which type of immunity is effected by bone marrow depression
    Both Cell-mediated and Humoral
  19. Natural-passive immunity
    • Breast milk
    • IgG
  20. Active immunity
    • Immunization
    • Vaccine
    • Actually having the disease
  21. Type 2 sensitivity reaction
    Causes the compliment cascade to increase toxicity to the cells
  22. Type 3 sensitivity reaction
    • Humoral
    • Immune complexes build up
    • Inflammatory responses cause complications
  23. Type 4 sensitivity reaction
    Is delayed due to weakly antigenic molecules in need of CD4 cells to build upon
  24. AIDS HAART Meds
    Stop protein synthesis from happening which doesn't allow the DNA & RNA to replicate
  25. Hormones responsible for body fluid regulation
    • Aldosterone
    • ADH
  26. Mechanisms for edema formation
    • Increased capillary permiability
    • Decreased oncotic capillary pressure
    • Increased hydrostatic pressure
    • Lymphatic obstruction
  27. Compensation for dehydration
    • Increased thirst
    • Decreased urine output
    • Increased ADH/Aldosterone production
    • Increased respiration/HR
  28. Pupose of sodium
    Manage the osmolality of fluids
  29. What type of calcium needs to monitored in cardiac/renal failure patients
    Ionized calcium
  30. Third Spacing
    • Enlarged abdomen is a common = ascites
    • Floating guts
  31. Antibodies
    Specific defence
  32. Hyper-kalemia
    • Produced by metabolic acidosis
    • Cardiac arrest
    • Muscle paralysis
    • Muscles are all locked - too much K+
  33. Hypo-kalemia
    • Produced by vommiting, diarrhea, diuretics, alcoholism
    • Cardiac dysrythmias
    • Week contractions
    • Muscles don't have enough gas
  34. Hyper-calcemia
    • Produced by Increased PTH, Vit D, and meds
    • Bone demineralization
    • Increased risk for kidney stones
  35. Hypo-calcemia
    • Produced by intestinal malabsorption, decreased Vit D, hypoparathyroidism
    • Week cardiac contractions
    • Bleeding
  36. Hyper-natremia
    • Produced by excess salt intake or decreased fluid intake
    • Cellular dehydration
    • Edema/cerebral ededma
    • Increased BP
  37. Hypo-natremia
    • Produced by vommiting, diarrhea, diuretics, or excess sweating
    • Hypovolemia
    • Decreased BP
  38. Hyper-magnesemia
    • Rare usually due to renal insufficiencies
    • Decreased reflexes
  39. Hypo-magnesemia
    Produced by decreased intake (malnutrition/malabsoption), excessive urination,

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