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  1. genomic simplicity
    bacterial genomes contain fewer genes and base pairs in haploid genomes than other organisms
  2. uncomplicated genotypes
    haploid genome of most bacteria allows all mutations to be observed directly, w/o interference from dominance interactions between alleles
  3. rapid generation times
    bacteria produce prolifically, generation time is measured in minutes
  4. large # of progeny
    large number of clonal progeny can be examined, increasing likehood that statistically rare events will be observed.
  5. ease of propagation
    microbes grow in liquid or culture plates. cultures are easy and enexpensive to maintain, require little lab space.
  6. numerous heritable differences
    mutants easily created, i.d, isolated, and manipulated for examination.
  7. conjugation
    transfer of replicated DNA from donor bacterium to recipient
  8. transformation
    uptake of DNA from environment by recipient bacterium
  9. transduction
    transfer of DNA from donor to recipient by way of viral vector
  10. bacterial chromosome
    closed circular molecule of double-stranded DNA.
  11. plasmid
    small double stranded circular DNA

    Contains nonessential genes, used infrequently or under special conditions.
  12. F (fertility)
    kind of plasmid

    contains genes that promote own transfer from donor bacterium to recipient.
  13. R (resistance)
    kind of plasmid

    carries antibiotic resistance genes, can be transferred from donors to recipients.
  14. conjugation
    process of gene transfer
  15. donor cell
    transfers some of its genetic information to other cell,(RECIPIENT CELL)
  16. Conjugation pilus
    aka conjugation tube

    • genetic information travels thru this to recipient cell.
    • connectes donor to recipient
  17. 3 kinds of cells seen in conjugation
    donor cell-contains F plasmid

    recipient cell-receives DNA does not contain f factor

    exoconjugant cell-produced by conjugation.
  18. exconjugant cell
    produced by conjugation, is essentially recipient cell that has had its genetic content modified.
  19. IS
    insertion sequence elements

    mobile segments of bacterial DNA that are capable of transporting themselves throughout bacterial genome.
  20. episome
    Circular DNA elements like plasmid

    can replicate independently of bacterial chromosome

    can integrate into bacterial chromosome and replicate as part of chromosome
  21. relaxosome
    f factor produces such protein after contacting conjugation pilus

    binds to origin of transfer (oriT)
  22. rolling circle replication
    unidirectional mode of DNA replication used to replicate circular plasmid, in which replicating circular molecule appears to reel off its nontemplate DNA Strand, using other as template for replication
  23. origin of transfer (oriT)
    site within fertility factor sequence where transfer to recipient cell is initiated.
  24. Hrf Cell
    high frequency recombination
  25. hfr donor
    donor bacterial strain containing and f factor integrated into its chromosome.

    AKA hfr chromosome
  26. selective growth medium
    contains compounds that permit only ex-conjugants with specific genotypes to grow,

    prevent growth of donor cell recipient cells
  27. interrupted mating
    cessation of cojugation caused by breakage of conjugation tube

    stops conjugation before Hfr chromosome can be completely transferred from donor to recipient.
  28. time of entry maping
    kind of experimental strategy that can map the order of donor genes and to determine the distances between genes
  29. F Donor
    "F" prime

    contains functional but altered f factor derived from imperfect excision of the F factor out of the Hfr chromosome
  30. F' Cells
    donor cells carrying an F' factor
  31. partial diploids
    exconjugant bacterium that acquires a second copy of one or more genes by conjugation with an F' donor cell
  32. lytic cycle
    six step process in which bacteriophages seek out and attach to host cell.

    leads to lysis of the host cell

    lysis releases up to 200 progeny phage particles
  33. lytic cycle steps
    attach- phage to host cell

    Injection- phage chromosome into host cell

    replication- of phage DNA, copy of phage chromosomoe is required for each of phage progeny

    Transcription and translation of phage genes

    packing of phage chromosomes into phage heads

    lysis of host cell
  34. temperate phages
    bacteriophage can integrate into the bacterial host chromosome and produce either lytic or lysogenic life cycle
  35. lysogenic cycle
    life cycle of bacterium infected by a temperate bacteriophage that integrates into the host chromosome and replicates along with it.

    comes to an end

    can persis for many bacterial replication and division but ends
  36. lytic cycle
  37. prophage
    phage DNA
  38. characterizations of lysogenic cycle
    attachment of phage to host

    injection of phage chromosome into host

    integration of phage chromosome into host chromosome

    excision of prophage

    resumption of lytic cycle
  39. transductant
    bacterium that is product of transduction
  40. generalized transduction
    transduction of a random segment of a donor chromosome into a recipient cell by a transducing phage.

    transfer of any bacterial gene, can be accomplished by bacteriophages that dont descriminate between phage and host DNA
  41. Specialized transduction
    accomplished only by temperate phages, genes are limited tho those close to site pf prophage integration.
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2013-03-13 20:36:33

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