Wellness Test 2 Vocab

Card Set Information

Wellness Test 2 Vocab
2013-03-13 17:25:49
Wellness Vocabulary

Wellness Test 2 Vocabulary
Show Answers:

  1. Overload Principle
    a basic principle of physical conditioning that states that in order to improve physical fitness, the body or specific muscles must be stressed.
  2. Principle of Progression
    a principle of training that states that overload should be increased gradually.
  3. Ten Percent Rule
    the training intensity or duration of exercise should not be increased by more than 10% per week.
  4. Maintenance Program
    exercising to sustain a desired level of physical fitness.
  5. Principle of Specificity
    the effect of exercise training is specific to those muscles involved in the activity.
  6. Principle of Recuperation
    the body requires recovery periods between exercise training sessions to adapt to the exercise stress. Therefore, a period of rest is essential for achieving maximal benefit from exercise.
  7. Overtraining
    the result of failure to get enough rest between exercise training sessions.
  8. Principle of Reversibility
    the loss of fitness due to inactivity.
  9. Exercise Prescription
    the individualized amount of exercise that will effectively promote physical fitness for a given person.
  10. Mode of Exercise
    the specific type of exercise to be performed.
  11. Warm-up
    a brief (5-to 15-minute) period of exercise that precedes a workout.
  12. Frequency of Exercise
    the number of times per week that one exercises.
  13. Intensity of Exercise
    the amount of physiological stress or overload placed on the body during exercise.
  14. Duration of Exercise
    the amount of time invested in performing the primary workout.
  15. Cool-down
    a 5-to 15-minute period of low-intensity exercise that immediately follows the primary conditioning period; sometimes called a warm-down.
  16. Threshold for Health Benefits
    the minimum level of physical activity required to achieve some of the health benefits of exercise.
  17. Cardiorespiratory Endurance
    the ability to perform aerobic exercises for a prolonged period of time.
  18. Aerobic Exercise
    a common term to describe all forms of exercises that primarily use the aerobic energy system and that are designed to improve cardiorespiratory fitness.
  19. VO²max
    the maximum amount of oxygen the body can take in and use during exercise.
  20. Pulmonary Circuit
    the vascular system that circulates blood from the right side of the heart, through the lungs,  and back to the left side of the heart.
  21. Systemic Circuit
    the vascular system that circulates blood from the left side of the heart, throughout the body, and back to the right side of the heart.
  22. Arteries
    the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
  23. Veins
    the blood vessels that transport blood toward the heart.
  24. Capillaries
    thin-walled vessels that permit the exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) and nutrients between the blood and tissues.
  25. Stroke Volume
    the amount of blood pumped per heartbeat (generally expressed in milliliters).
  26. Cardiac Output
    the amount of blood the heart pumps per minute.
  27. Alveoli
    tiny air sacs in the lungs that receive carbon dioxide and other wastes from oxygen-depleted blood.
  28. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
    a high-energy compound that is synthesized and stored in small quantities in muscle and other cells. The breakdown of ATP results in a release of energy that can be used to fuel muscular contraction.
  29. Anaerobic
    • "without oxygen"
    • in cells, pertains to biochemical pathways that use oxygen to produce energy.
  30. Aerobic
    • "with oxygen"
    • in cells, pertains to biochemical pathways that use oxygen to produce energy.
  31. Glycolysis
    a process during which carbohydrates are broken down in cells. much of the anaerobic ATP production in muscle cells occurs during glycolysis.
  32. Lactic Acid
    a by-product of glucose metabolism, produced primarily during intense exercise.
  33. Responses
    the changes that occur during exercise to help you meet the demand of the exercise session. these changes return to normal levels shortly after the exercise session.
  34. Adaptations
    semipermanent changes that occur over time with regular exercise. adaptations can be reversed when a regular exercise program is stopped for an extended period of time.
  35. 1.5-mile run test
    one of the simplest and most accurate assessments of cardiorespiratory fitness.
  36. Cycle Ergometer
    a stationary exercise cycle that provides pedaling resistance so the amount of work can be measured.
  37. Training Threshold
    the training intensity above which there is an improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. this intensity is approx. 50% of VO²max.
  38. Target Heart Rate (THR)
    the range of heart rates that corresponds to an exercise intensity of approximately 50-85% VO¹max. this is the range of training heart rates that results in improvements in aerobic capacity.
  39. Heart Rate Reverse (HRR)
    the difference between your maximal heart rate and resting heart rate.
  40. Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion
    a subjective way of estimating exercise intensity based on a numerical scale of 6 to 20.
  41. Cross Training
    the use of a variety of activities for training the cardiorespiratory system.
  42. Interval Training
    type of training that includes repeated sessions or intervals of relatively intense exercise alternated with lower-intensity periods to rest or recover.
  43. Resting Energy Expenditure
    • the amount of energy expended during all sedentary activities.
    • AKA resting metabolic rate
  44. Muscle Action
    the shortening of a skeletal muscle (causing movement) or the lengthening of a skeletal muscle (resisting movement).
  45. Fascia
    a thin layer of connective tissue that surrounds the muscle.
  46. Tendon
    a fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.
  47. Motor Unit
    a motor nerve and all of the muscle fibers it controls.
  48. Isotonic
    • a type of exercise in which there is movement of a body part. most exercise or sports skills are isotonic exercise.
    • AKA dynamic exercise
  49. Isometric
    • a type of exercise in which muscular tension is developed but the body part does not move.
    • AKA static exercise
  50. Isokinetic
    a type of exercise that can include concentric or eccentric muscle actions performed at a constant speed using a specialized machine.
  51. Range of Motion
    the amount of movement possible at a joint
  52. Concentric Muscle Action
    • action in which the muscle develops tension as it shortens against resistance and/or gravity.
    • AKA positive work
  53. Eccentric Muscle Action
    • action in which the muscle develops tension as it lengthens while controlling the movement with gravity.
    • AKA negative work
  54. Slow-twitch Fibers
    red muscle fibers that contract slowly and are highly resistant to fatigue. these fibers have the capacity to produce large quantities of ATP aerobically.
  55. Fast-twitch Fibers
    white muscle fibers that contract rapidly but fatigue quickly. these fibers have a low aerobic capacity and produce ATP anaerobically.
  56. Intermediate Fibers
    muscle fibers with a combination of the characteristics of fast- and slow-twitch fibers. they contract rapidly and are fatigue resistant because they have a well-developed aerobic capacity.
  57. Fiber Recruitment
    the process of involving more muscle fibers to increase muscular force.
  58. One-repetition maximum (1 RM) Test
    measurement of the maximum amount of weight that can be lifted one time.
  59. Push-up Test
    a fitness test designed to evaluate endurance of shoulder and arm muscles.
  60. Sit-up Test
    a test to evaluate abdominal and hip muscle endurance.
  61. Curl-up Test
    a test to evaluate abdominal muscle endurance.
  62. Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE)
    application of the overload principle to strength and endurance exercise programs.
  63. Specificity of Training
    the concept that the development of muscular strength and endurance, as well as cardiorespiratory endurance, is specific to both the muscle group exercised and the training intensity.
  64. Hypertrophy
    an increase in muscle fiber size.
  65. Hyperplasia
    an increase in the number of muscle fibers.
  66. Valsalva Maneuver
    breath holding during an intense muscle contraction; can reduce blood flow to the brain and cause dizziness and fainting.
  67. Set
    the number of repetitions performed consecutively without resting.
  68. Starter Phase
    the beginning phase of an exercise program. the goal of this phase is to build a base for further physical conditioning.
  69. Slow Progression Phase
    the second phase of an exercise program. the goal of this phase is to increase muscle strength beyond the starter phase.
  70. Maintenance Phase
    the third phase of an exercise program. the goal of this phase is to maintain the increase in strength obtained during the first two phases.
  71. Flexibility
    the ability to move joints freely through their full ROM.
  72. Ligaments
    connective tissue within the joint capsule that holds bones together.
  73. Cartilage
    a tough connective tissue that forms a pad on the end of long bones, such as the femur, tibia, and humerus. cartilage acts as a shock absorber to cushion the weight of one bone on another and to provide protection from the friction due to joint movement.
  74. Stretch Reflex
    involuntary contraction of a muscle due to rapid stretching of that muscle.
  75. Muscle Spindles
    the type of proprioceptor found within muscle.
  76. Proprioceptor
    specialized receptor in muscle or tendon that provides feedback to the brain about the position of body parts.
  77. Golgi Tendon Organ
    the type of proprioceptor found within tendons.
  78. Hypokinetic Disease
    disease associated with a lack of exercise.
  79. Sit-and-Reach Test
    a fitness test that measures the ability to flex the trunk.
  80. Shoulder Flexibility Test
    a fitness test that measures the ability of the shoulder muscles to move through their full ROM.
  81. Dynamic Stretching
    stretching that involves moving the joints through the full ROM to mimic a movement used in a sport or exercise.
  82. Ballistic Stretching
    a type of stretch that involves sudden and forceful bouncing to stretch the muscles.
  83. Static Stretching
    stretching that slowly lengthens a muscle to a point where further movement is limited.
  84. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
    a series of movements that combines stretching with alternating contraction and relaxation of muscles.
  85. Antagonist
    the muscle on the opposite side of the joint.