Human Anatomy/Physiology Chapter 3

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kavloa44
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207112
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Human Anatomy/Physiology Chapter 3
Updated:
2013-04-11 14:26:58
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Cells
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Cells
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  1. What is the control center of the cell?
    Nucleus.
  2. What is slipper-shaped organelles that produce most of the energy (ATP) hence referred to as the "power plants"?
    Mitochondria.
  3. What puts the finishing touches on and packages the protein for export from the cell?
    Golgi apparatus.
  4. What structure separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm?
    Nuclear membrane.
  5. What is a sandpaper-like structure dotted with ribosomes and concerned with protein synthesis?
    Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER).
  6. What has a long, hairlike projection on the external surface of the cell membrane, such as the tail of the sperm?
    Flagella.
  7. What contains most of the DNA within a cell?
    Nucleus.
  8. What is a selectively permeable structure that separates intracellular material from extracellular material?
    Cell membrane.
  9. What has short, hairlike projections on the outer surface of the cell?
    Cilia.
  10. What is the digestive organelle that "clean house" within the cell?
    Lysosomes.
  11. What organelles help maintain the shape of the cell and assist the cell with movement?
    Microtubules (The cytoskeleton is composed of microfilaments and microtubules).
  12. What is a gel-like substance inside the cell but outside the nucleus?
    Cytoplasm.
  13. What organelle is either bounded to the endoplasmic reticulum or are free in the cytoplasm and are concerned with protein synthesis?
    Ribosomes.
  14. Which type of endoplasmic reticulum is concerned with the synthesis of lipids and steroids and does not contain ribosomes?
    Smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
  15. What is a rod-shaped structure that play a key role in cellular reproduction?
    Centrioles.
  16. What within the cell is also referred to as the "power plants"?
    Mitochondria.
  17. What is the most commonly used transport mechanism?
    Diffusion (Passive transport mechanism).
  18. Which transport mechanism is one in which water diffuses from an area where there is more water to an area where there is less water and the solute cannot diffuse?
    Osmosis.
  19. Which transport mechanism uses the pressure gradient as the driving force?
    Filtration.
  20. Which transport mechanism engulfs a solid particle by the cell membrane (a type of endocytosis)?
    Phagocytosis.
  21. Which type of transport mechanism requires an input of energy to move molecules from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration?
    Active transport Pumps.
  22. What transport mechanism has the movement of a substance from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration?
    Diffusion.
  23. Which passive transport mechanism works in a way which glucose is helped across the cell membrane by a helper molecule?
    Facilitated diffusion.
  24. Which transport mechanism works where there is an intake of liquid droplets by the cell membrane (also called cellular drinking)?
    Pinocytosis.
  25. An example of this transport mechanism is the swelling of a blood clot as water is pulled into the clot?
    Osmosis.
  26. What describes this type of transport: The blood pressure pushes water and dissolved solute out of the capillaries into the tissue spaces?
    Filtration.
  27. Which transport mechanism describes the actions of a lysosome which eats or ingests a bacterium?
    Endocytosis.
  28. Which transport mechanism acts by a protein-containing vesicle within a cell fuses with the cell membrane and ejects the protein?
    Exocytosis.
  29. Which transport mechanism is needed to move additional potassium into the cell if the intracellular concentration of potassium is greater than the extracellular concentration of potassium?
    Active transport pump.
  30. What do you call shrinking of red blood cells?
    Crenation.
  31. What do you call the bursting of red blood cells?
    Hemolysis.
  32. What do you call a solution that is more dilute than the inside of the cell?
    Hypotonic.
  33. What do you call a solution with the same concentration as the solution to which it is compared?
    Isotonic.
  34. What do you a solution that causes crenation of a red blood cell?
    Hypertonic.
  35. What do you a solution that causes the red blood cell to hemolyze?
    Hypotonic.
  36. What is normal saline?
    An isotonic solution.
  37. What describes a 10% dextrose solution relative to plasma if a 5% dextrose solution is isotonic to plasma?
    Hypertonic.
  38. What describes pure water relative to plasma?
    Hypotonic.
  39. What best describes malignant neoplasm?
    Cancer.
  40. What best describes the ability of cancer cells spreading to distant sites?
    Metastasis.
  41. What consists of two phases: interphase and mitosis?
    Cell cycle.
  42. What is the type of cell division involved in bodily growth and repair?
    Mitosis.
  43. What phase must the cells enter in order to end cell cycling?
    G0.
  44. What includes G1, S, G2, and M?
    Interphase.
  45. What do you call an undifferentiated or unspecialized cell?
    Stem Cells.
  46. What phase during the cell cycle involves the replication of DNA?
    S.
  47. What is the type of cell division that occurs in sex cells?
    Meiosis.
  48. What phase of the cell cycle is affected by a drug that is M-phase specific?
    Mitosis.

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