Wellness Exam 2

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NikkiStewart21
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207114
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Wellness Exam 2
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2013-03-13 19:23:31
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Wellness Fitness
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Wellness Exam 2
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  1. Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Regular Exercise
    Increased longevity: lower risk of hd, lower risk of adult onset diabetes, lowered bp (lower risk of hypertension), greater bone density, and assistance in weight control.
  2. Exercise Requires Energy. What is Energy?
    • ATP (adenosine) - muscle fuel for contractions.
    • creates movement
  3. Where does ATP come from?
    energy pathways breaking down CHO (carbohydrate) and fats.
  4. Two ways to make ATP
    • Anaerobic energy pathways
    • aerobic
  5. Anaerobic Energy Pathways
    • energy production without oxygen
    • makes ATP very quickly
    • does not make ATP for very long
    • Pathways: Phosphagen system and Anaerobic (fast) glycolsis (breaking down sugar).
  6. Phosphagen System
    • ATP for 10 secs
    • Runs out of phosphocreatine (PC)
    • Stops producing ATP when there's no more PC
  7. Anaerobic (FAST) Glycolysis
    • Uses carbohydrates to make ATP: blood glucose, and muscles glycogen
    • Final product: lactic acid
    • Works first 2 minutes of exercise
    • HIa: accumulation slows pathway
  8. Anaerobic Activities
    • Shot put
    • Discus
    • Long Jump
    • High Jump
    • Lifting a weight
    • Throwing baseball
    • Swinging bat
    • Running to 1st base
    • Sprinting for less than 2 minutes
  9. Aerobic Energy Pathways
    • Energy production using oxygen
    • Predominant after 2 minutes
    • CHO pathways: aerobic glycolysis→krebs cycle→electron transport chain (ETC)
    • Fat Pathways: lipolysis→betaoxidation→krebs cycle→ETC
  10. Aerobic Energy Production CHO or Fats?
    • Increased Exercise Intensity: CHO > Fats
    • Increased Exercise Duration: Fats > CHO
    • Exercise to Lose Weight: vigorous intensity (60-65%), longer duration, not higher intensity (45 to 60 mins)
  11. Aerobic Activities
    • Lasts more than 2 minutes
    • Continuous
    • Uses large muscle groups
    • Walking, running, jogging
    • Biking
    • Swimming
    • Aerobic dancing
    • Racquetball
    • Rollerblading
    • In-line skating
  12. Body Systems Involved in Aerobic Energy Production
    • Respiratory System: oxygenated
    • Cardiovascular System: transports oxygenated blood
    • Muscular System: extracts oxygen to make ATP. Mitrochondria - powerhouse of the cell - makes ATP
  13. ATP Production - Anaerobic
    • Oxygen - No
    • Production rate - Fast
    • Time - 2 mins
    • Amount of ATP - Small
    • Nutrients - Phosphagens, CHO
    • Pathways - Phosphagens, Glycolysis
  14. ATP Production - Aerobic
    • Oxygen - Yes
    • Production rate - Slow
    • Time - Forever
    • Amount of ATP - Large
    • Nutrients - CHO, Fats
    • Pathways - Glycolysis, Lipolysis, Beta oxidation, Krebs cycle, ETC
  15. Anaerobic
    • No need for CV or Respiratory System
    • Intensity - High
    • Duration - Short
    • Events - Strength, Power, Speed
  16. Aerobic
    • Needs both the CV and Respiratory system
    • Intensity - Low/Mod
    • Duration - Mod/Long
  17. Training Principles for Exercise
    • General training principles
    • Applicable for all types of training: aerobic/endurance training, anaerobic training, resistance training
    • Used to improve health related fitness: CRF, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility
  18. Overload Principle
    • the body or specific muscles must be stressed to do slightly more than they are accustomed to doing.
    • How: increase exercise frequency, duration, and intensity
    • Results: improved fitness, depending on ow body was overloaded
    • Increase CRF: overload systems of CRF (cardiovascular, respiratory, muscular)
    • Increase strength: lift heavier weights
    • Increase endurance: lift weights, more repetitions
    • Increase flexibility: stretch muscles longer or further
  19. Principle of Progression
    • the overload should be increased gradually on a regular basis
    • progress too slow: little improvement
    • progress too fast: risk of injury
    • 10% rule: don't increase training intensity more than 10% per week
  20. Specificity Training
    • training effects are specific to muscles involved and type of activity
    • Strength training: improves strength, not endurance
    • Cycling, running: improves leg endurance, not leg strength and improves CRF, not flexibility
    • Stretching: improves strength not CRF
    • Training effects are specific
    • Decrease fat in abs: CARDIO
  21. Principles of Recuperation
    • the body requires recovery periods (rest) between exercise sessions to adapt and improve
    • Heavy exercise: 1-2 days between bouts
    • Light exercise: 1/2 day between bouts
    • Ignore adequate rest periods: overtraining, overuse of injury, and decrease performance.
  22. Reversibility of Training Effects
    • USE IT OR LOSE IT
    • extended recovery periods = loss of fitness
    • the body cant store fitness: increases with overload and decreases with extended rest
    • Strength training: in 8 weeks ~ 10% of gains lost
    • Aerobic endurance training: in 8 weeks ~ 30-40% of gains lost
    • to regain losses it takes twice as long compared to exercise break
  23. General Principle of Exercise Rx
    • the correct dosage of exercise needed to effectively promote physical fitness
    • Includes 4 components: fitness goals, FITT principle, warmup before exercise, cool down after exercise
  24. Systems Involved in Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF)
    • Respiratory: oxygenates blood
    • Cardiovascular system: transports oxygenated blood
    • Muscular system: extracts, uses Oto make ATP
    • In the mitochondria
  25. Cardiorespiratory Fitness
    • the more oxygen the body can bring in, the greater the CRF level
    • max rate of oxygen used: max oxygen used, VOmax, units: ml/kg/min

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