Neurobiology Pt. 1
Card Set Information
Neurobiology Pt. 1
Animals possess __ systems that often cooperate to control __ and __.
What are they?
physiology and behavior:
endocrine and nervous system
Explain endocrine system
Relies on chemical signals.
- Consists of individual glands that release hormones that travel via blood.
- Response to hormones may take seconds to minutes.
- Dispersal of hormones in blood exposes most of body cells; however, only
those with proper receptors will respond.
Explain nervous system
Uses electrochemical signals.
- Consists of specialized cells that branch throughout body and conduct
signals directly to and from specific targets.
- Structural complexity of the system permits the integration of a broad spectrum of information and stimulation of a very wide range of responses
The area of the brain that controls "executive funcitons"--including weighing long term consequences and controlling impulses--is among the __.
last to fully develop
Subdivisions of the NS
Central nervous system
(CNS): Consists of
. At a very basic level they are responsible for integrating sensory input and coordinating motor output.
Peripheral nervous system
(PNS): Functionally Divided into two parts (1)
(voluntary); further divided into
(2) Visceral (involuntary) or
ANS further subdivides into
("fight or flight") and
("resting and digesting") divisions.
How many spinal and cranial nerves are there?
Explain the chemicals associated with the autonomic division of the PNS.
: epinephrine (adrenaline) and nor-epinephrine (nor-adrenaline)
Explain a neurotransmitter that affects the amgydala.
seratonin: quiets the amygdala; antidepressants increase it, thereby causing quieting
Generalize/ simplify the functions of each lobe.
: sensory, perception, sensation
: planning, reasoning, judgment
: hearing, memory (describing memory, not procedural)
lowest part of brain
contains brain nuclei associated with some of the most fundamental aspects of life
contains the cardiac control center, the respiratory center
the cranial nerve nuclei in here
spinal cord contains tracts (white matter)
sends info up and down the spinal cord
Matter arranged in spinal cord
spinal cord has white matter outside nad gray matter arranged in the shape of a butterfly on the inside (cell bodies are in here; neuronal cell bodies)
primary motor cortex
highest level, primary, executive funciton
What is the homunculus?
little man or woman in the brain
Explain the cortices?
: Motor cortex
: Sensory cortex
PNS anatomically divided into __ pairs of cranial nerves and __ pairs of spinal nerves.
What do they provide?
innervation to the skin, joints and muscles that are under voluntary control
Axons from __ supply __ (__) and __ bring information from __ to the __(__).
(cell bodies reside within the CNS)
skin and joints
cell bodies are found in the dorsal root ganglia--outside the spinal cord
__ that innervated organs also travel in __.
Neurons of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) or Visceral PNS:
- Both divisions of the ANS (__) possess __ that do what?
- All __ for these axons/ fibers are located __.
sympathetic and parasympathetic
alter functions of, and monitor changes in, body organs (viscera) and blood vessles
outside the CNS in ganglia
How many... nerves?