Neurobiology Pt. 1

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  1. Animals possess __ systems that often cooperate to control __ and __.
    What are they?
    • 2 coordinating
    • physiology and behavior:
    • endocrine and nervous system
  2. Explain endocrine system
    • Relies on chemical signals.
    •   -  Consists of individual glands that release hormones that travel via blood.
    •   -  Response to hormones may take seconds to minutes.
    •   -  Dispersal of hormones in blood exposes most of body cells; however, only
    •   those with proper receptors will respond.
  3. Explain nervous system
    • Uses electrochemical signals.
    •   -  Consists of specialized cells that branch throughout body and conduct
    •   signals directly to and from specific targets.
    •   -  Structural complexity of the system permits the integration of a broad   spectrum of information and stimulation of a very wide range of   responses 
  4. The area of the brain that controls "executive funcitons"--including weighing long term consequences and controlling impulses--is among the __.
    last to fully develop
  5. Subdivisions of the NS
      Central nervous system (CNS):  Consists of brain and spinal cord.    At a very basic level they are responsible for integrating sensory   input and coordinating motor output.

    •   2.  Peripheral nervous system (PNS):  Functionally Divided into two parts   (1) Somatic (voluntary); further divided into motor and sensory.
    •   (2) Visceral (involuntary) or Autonomic (ANS).
    •   ANS further subdivides into Sympathetic ("fight or flight") and   Parasympathetic ("resting and digesting") divisions. 
  6. How many spinal and cranial nerves are there?
    • 31 spinal 
    • 12 cranial
  7. Explain the chemicals associated with the autonomic division of the PNS.
    • sympathetic: epinephrine (adrenaline) and nor-epinephrine (nor-adrenaline)
    • parasympathetic: acetylcholine
  8. Explain a neurotransmitter that affects the amgydala.
    seratonin: quiets the amygdala; antidepressants increase it, thereby causing quieting
  9. Generalize/ simplify the functions of each lobe.
    • Parietal: sensory, perception, sensation
    • Frontal: planning, reasoning, judgment
    • Occipital: vision
    • Temporal: hearing, memory (describing memory, not procedural)
  10. medulla oblongota
    • lowest part of brain
    • contains brain nuclei associated with some of the most fundamental aspects of life
    • contains the cardiac control center, the respiratory center
    • the cranial nerve nuclei in here
  11. cerebellum
    • equilibrium
    • balance
    • propioception
  12. brain stem
    • spinal cord contains tracts (white matter)
    • sends info up and down the spinal cord
  13. Matter arranged in spinal cord
    spinal cord has white matter outside nad gray matter arranged in the shape of a butterfly on the inside (cell bodies are in here; neuronal cell bodies)
  14. frontal lobe
    • primary motor cortex
    • highest level, primary, executive funciton
    • judgement 
    • morality
  15. What is the homunculus?
    little man or woman in the brain
  16. Explain the cortices?
    • Outpot: Motor cortex
    • Input: Sensory cortex
  17. PNS anatomically divided into __ pairs of cranial nerves and __ pairs of spinal nerves. 
    What do they provide?
    • 12
    • 31
    • innervation to the skin, joints and muscles that are under voluntary control
  18. Axons from __ supply __ (__) and __ bring information from __ to the __(__).
    • "motor neurons" 
    • muscles 
    • (cell bodies reside within the CNS)
    • sensory neurons
    • skin and joints
    • CNS
    • cell bodies are found in the dorsal root ganglia--outside the spinal cord
  19. __ that innervated organs also travel in __.
    • ANS axons
    • peripheral nerves
  20. Neurons of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) or Visceral PNS:
    - Both divisions of the ANS (__) possess __ that do what?
    - All __ for these axons/ fibers are located __.
    • sympathetic and parasympathetic
    • fibers (axons)
    • alter functions of, and monitor changes in, body organs (viscera) and blood vessles
    • cell bodies
    • outside the CNS in ganglia
  21. How many... nerves?
    • C: 8
    • T: 12
    • L: 5
    • S: 5
    • C: 1
Card Set:
Neurobiology Pt. 1
2013-03-15 20:57:46
BIO 220

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