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Animals possess __ systems that often cooperate to control __ and __.
What are they?
- 2 coordinating
- physiology and behavior:
- endocrine and nervous system
Explain endocrine system
- Relies on chemical signals.
- - Consists of individual glands that release hormones that travel via blood.
- - Response to hormones may take seconds to minutes.
- - Dispersal of hormones in blood exposes most of body cells; however, only
- those with proper receptors will respond.
Explain nervous system
- Uses electrochemical signals.
- - Consists of specialized cells that branch throughout body and conduct
- signals directly to and from specific targets.
- - Structural complexity of the system permits the integration of a broad spectrum of information and stimulation of a very wide range of responses
The area of the brain that controls "executive funcitons"--including weighing long term consequences and controlling impulses--is among the __.
last to fully develop
Subdivisions of the NS
Central nervous system (CNS): Consists of brain and spinal cord. At a very basic level they are responsible for integrating sensory input and coordinating motor output.
Peripheral nervous system (PNS): Functionally Divided into two parts (1) Somatic (voluntary); further divided into motor and sensory.
- (2) Visceral (involuntary) or Autonomic (ANS).
- ANS further subdivides into Sympathetic ("fight or flight") and Parasympathetic ("resting and digesting") divisions.
How many spinal and cranial nerves are there?
Explain the chemicals associated with the autonomic division of the PNS.
- sympathetic: epinephrine (adrenaline) and nor-epinephrine (nor-adrenaline)
- parasympathetic: acetylcholine
Explain a neurotransmitter that affects the amgydala.
seratonin: quiets the amygdala; antidepressants increase it, thereby causing quieting
Generalize/ simplify the functions of each lobe.
- Parietal: sensory, perception, sensation
- Frontal: planning, reasoning, judgment
- Occipital: vision
- Temporal: hearing, memory (describing memory, not procedural)
- lowest part of brain
- contains brain nuclei associated with some of the most fundamental aspects of life
- contains the cardiac control center, the respiratory center
- the cranial nerve nuclei in here
- spinal cord contains tracts (white matter)
- sends info up and down the spinal cord
Matter arranged in spinal cord
spinal cord has white matter outside nad gray matter arranged in the shape of a butterfly on the inside (cell bodies are in here; neuronal cell bodies)
- primary motor cortex
- highest level, primary, executive funciton
What is the homunculus?
little man or woman in the brain
Explain the cortices?
- Outpot: Motor cortex
- Input: Sensory cortex
PNS anatomically divided into __ pairs of cranial nerves and __ pairs of spinal nerves.
What do they provide?
- innervation to the skin, joints and muscles that are under voluntary control
Axons from __ supply __ (__) and __ bring information from __ to the __(__).
- "motor neurons"
- (cell bodies reside within the CNS)
- sensory neurons
- skin and joints
- cell bodies are found in the dorsal root ganglia--outside the spinal cord
__ that innervated organs also travel in __.
- ANS axons
- peripheral nerves
Neurons of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) or Visceral PNS:
- Both divisions of the ANS (__) possess __ that do what?
- All __ for these axons/ fibers are located __.
- sympathetic and parasympathetic
- fibers (axons)
- alter functions of, and monitor changes in, body organs (viscera) and blood vessles
- cell bodies
- outside the CNS in ganglia
How many... nerves?