Neurobiology Vocabulary

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Neurobiology Vocabulary
2013-03-24 19:31:09
BIO 220

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  1. Anterior/ventral horns of spinal cord
    Ventral horns are gray matter of the spinal cord …contain cell bodies of lower motor neurons.
  2. posterior/dorsal horns of spinal cord;
    Dorsal horns are gray matter of the spinal cord …contain cell bodies of sensory interneurons whose axons make dorsal columns. 
  3. Amygdala
    part of temporal lobe...learning fear, plays role in anxiety and aggression
  4. Brain Nucleus
    Collection of neuronal cell bodies inside the CNS, not including cortical gray of cerebral  and cerebellar cortices 
  5. Brain stem
    Collective term for medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain 
  6. Brain ventricles (how many)

    Lateral Ventricle largest of 4 ventricles in the brain. There are left and right lateral ventricles. Third  and Fourth Ventricles are associated with the thalamus/hypothalamus and brain stem. All ventricles contain  cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
  7. Cerebral aqueduct
    Connects 3rd and 4th ventricles and also contains CSF
  8. Cerebellum
    • means little brain.  Controls balance, equilibrium, and proprioception (receives stretch/rate of stretch information from muscles and tendons).
  9. Cerebrum
    Divided  into two cerebral hemispheres, each containing four major lobes (i.e., frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital).  Also contains  other major brain regions including the thalamus and  hypothalamus.
  10. Corpus Callosum
    Largest commissure in the brain (i.e., a commissure is white matter connection  between both cerebral hemispheres);  therefore, it connects  the left and right cerebral hemispheres. 
  11. Cranial nerves
    There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves.  They are an extremely important  part of the peripheral nervous system and connect directly to the brain . (Spinal nerves [see below] connect directly to the spinal cord.)  Knowledge of cranial nerve  connections and function essential in neurological diagnosis.
  12. Dorsal, lateral ventral columns of spinal cord
    These are the white matter of the spinal cord.  They contain bundles of myelinated axons that carry information up and down the spinal cord.  For example, the dorsal columns convey sensory information  (e.g., touch) up the spinal cord to the brain.  Lateral columns convey motor information from the brain down the spinal cord, as well as pain and temperature info up the spinal cord to the brain.
  13. Dorsal root ganglion
    • Part of the peripheral nervous system,  located adjacent spinal cord, one for each spinal nerve, contains cell bodies of vast majority of sensory neurons . 
  14. Frontal lobe
    • (1 of 4 major lobes of each cerebral hemisphere);
    • contains precentral gyrus (for motor control) and prefrontal cortex (see below).
  15. Ganglion
    Collection of  neuronal cell bodies  located outside of the central nervous system.
  16. Gray and white matter of brain and spinal cord;  
    Gray matter  appears  “gray” because  contains high density of  neuronal cell bodies, located in the CNS.White matter appears “white” because contains high density of  myelinated axons , located in the CNS.
  17. Gyri(us); 

    Ridges and bumps of the cerebrum
  18. Hippocampus
    Part of temporal lobe, for memory consolidation, spatial navigation, plays role in emotions. Damaged in Alzheimer’s
  19. Hypothalamus;

    • Controls appetitive behaviors and much of endocrine system.   Also plays major role in emotions.
    • memory; biological clock; temperature; cyclic in females; upper brain region; hormones
  20. Longitudinal fissure

    Divides right and left cerebral hemispheres of the cerebrum.
  21. Massa intermedia (intermediate mass of thalamus);
    Seen in mid sagittal view of thalamus.
  22. Medulla oblongata

    Most posterior part of the brain (hind brain).  Contains many cranial nerve nuclei, tracts  (i.e., collections of axons) from sensory and motor neurons, vestibular and auditory centers, cardiac center, and inspiratory center (breathing)
  23. Midbrain

    • It does not include  the thalamus or hypothalamus , as is often and mistakenly  suggested in lay publications.  Specifically located behind the hypothalamus and anterior to the pons.  Contains the substantia nigra, some cranial nerve nuclei and .important motor and sensory tracts.
    • contains dopamine; if you have none, you don't care or love
  24. Motor neurons (upper and lower); 

    Upper motor neurons indirectly initiate movement; cell bodies located in precentral gyri and axons project to lower motor neurons.Lower motor neurons directly initiate movement; cell bodies located in ventral horn of spinal cord and axons project to skeletal muscle.
  25. Occipital lobe(s
    • (1 of 4 major lobes of each cerebral hemisphere);
    • Contains primary visual cortex.
    • Note: Each main cerebral hemisphere lobe has primary regions and association areas which provide more complex information regarding each main function
  26. Parietal lobe
    • – (1 of 4 major lobes of each cerebral hemisphere);
    • peripheral body sensation such as pain, touch, temperature, vibration, or itch. Contains postcentral gyrus (primary sensory cortex
  27. Pineal gland/ body
    “3rd eye”. Descartes’ seat of the soul. Makes melatonin for circadian rhythms .  Will be discussed further with endocrine system.
  28. Postcentral gyri(us)

    Primary sensory cortex , located in parietal lobes.
  29. Pons;
    Means bridge.  Part of the brain stem.  Contains sensory and motor tracts going up and down spinal cord, cranial nerve nuclei, and tracts interconnecting cerebellum with rest of the brain and spinal cord.
  30. Precentral gyri(us);  
    Primary motor cortex, located in the frontal lobes.
  31. Prefrontal cortex
    highest intellectual functions (executive functions ), decision making , self-control, morality.
  32. Sensory neurons

    Perceive sensations from  skin  (e.g., touch, pain, temperature)  and convey to spinal .
  33. Simple reflex arch (e.g., monosynaptic reflex);

    Sensory neurons synapses with a lower motor neuron in the spinal cord.  For example, stretch of patellar tendon is detected by a sensory neuron.  The signal travels to the spinal cord where the sensory neuron synapses with a lower motor neuron that stimulates contraction of the quadriceps femoris
  34. Sulci(us)

    Shallow groves between gyri.
  35. Spinal nerves
    31 pairs,  part of peripheral nervous system.  Are mixed, i.e., they contain  axons from motor and sensory neurons.
  36. Superior & inferior colliculi(us);  

    together they comprise the corpora quadrigemina and roof of the midbrain. Involved in complex visual reflexes:  Superior causes us to turn head when we see something in periphery.  Inferior links auditory input to visual reflexes
  37. Temporal  lobe(s) – 
    (1 of 4 major lobes of each cerebral hemisphere);controls hearing, has primary auditory cortex (superior temporal gyrus), amygdala, and hippocampus.
  38. Thalamus;

    • Sensory relay station of the brain …for all sensations except smell.
    • conducts, synchronizes the regions