AP World Vocab Quiz
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a philosophical movement in 18th centruy Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics
Frances traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789
Declaration of Rights of Man (1789)
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
- young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror
Congress of Vienna
- Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napolean I
the transformation of the economy, the environment, and living conditions, occurring first in England in the 18th century, that resulted from the use of steam engines, the mechanization of manufacturing in factories, and innovations in transportation and communication.
Division of Labor
a manufacturing technique that breaks down a craft into many simple and repetitive tasks adn can be performed by unskilled workers. Pioneered in the pottery works of Josiah Wedgwood and in other 18th century factories, it greatly increased the productivity of labor and lowered the cost of manufactured goods
the application of machinery to manufacturing and other activities. Among the first processes to be mechanized were the spinning of cotton thread adn the weaving of cloth in the late 18th century and early 19th century England
European government policies of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their motherland country. The British system was defined by Navigation Acts, the French system by laws known as Exclusif
the idea that government should refrain from interfering in economic affairs. The classic exposition of laissez faire principles is Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations
the most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia
political leaders who rely on charisma and their ability to mobilize and direct the masses of citizens outside the authority of constitutions and laws
the adoption of the language, customs, values, and behaviors of host nations by immigrants
a people of modern South Africa whom King Shaka united in 1818
a large Muslim state founded in 1809 in what is now northern Nigeria
the process of reforming political, military, economic, social, and cultural traditions in imitation of the early success of Western societies, often with regard for accommodating local traditions in non-Western societies
exports from Africa in the 19th century that didnt includethe newly outlawed slave trade
the rule over much of South Asia between 1765 and 1947 by the East India Company and then by a British government
Indian National Congress
a movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, it appealed increasingly to the poor and it organized mass protests demanding self government and independence
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