Psychology

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mklynn4269
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207131
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Psychology
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2013-03-13 23:15:50
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Psychology
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Psychology Final
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  1. Many theorist believe that the basic challenge of modern life has become the search for?
    meaning or sense of direction
  2. The study of behavior and the profession that applies knowledge from these studies to solving practical problems?
    Psychology
  3. The psychological processes through which people manage or cope with the demands and challenges of everyday life?
    adjustment
  4. An experiment is a research method in which the investigator manipulates the ____ variable and observes whether any changes occur in an ___ variable as a result?
    independent...dependent
  5. A control group consists of subjects who?
    do not receive the special treatment given to the experiment group
  6. A correlation exists when?
    there is relationship between two variables
  7. Which of the following ideas is not central to the concept of personality?
    traits that are shared with others
  8. Psychodynamic theories of personality tend to focus on?
    unconscious mental process
  9. Which of the following theoretical orientations asserts that scientific psychology should focus on the study of observable behavior?
    behaviorism
  10. Which individual is credited with discovering operant conditioning?
    B. F Skinner
  11. The humanistic theorist who emphasized the need for self-actualization and the hierarchical organization of needs was?
    Abraham Maslow
  12. ___ test requires people to respond to ambiguous stimuli. Inferences about needs, emotions, and personality traits are drawn from the responses?
    A projective
  13. Routine hassles may have significant negative effects on mental and physical health?
    nature of stress
  14. Chronic environmental conditions that place adaptive demands on people?
    ambient stress
  15. You are a talented artist and you are good at math. You enjoy both and don't know which to major in at college. Which of the following types of conflict applies to your situation?
    approach-approach
  16. According to your textbook, people are motivated to maintain a(n)____ view of the self?
    consistent
  17. A mismatching of self-perception is termed?
    self-discrepency
  18. The most likely reference group for a first year medical student would be?
    first year medical students
  19. Both low and high self-esteem may be maintained in part by the power of?
    expectations
  20. According to Baumrind's parental classification system, authoritative parents display?
    high acceptance, high control
  21. Internal attributions ascribe causes of behavior to ___ factors?
    personal
  22. The tendency to sabotage one's performance to provide an excuse for possible failure is called?
    self-handicapping
  23. Self-efficacy is most associated with?
    beliefs
  24. Which of the following is NOT a source of self- efficacy?
    comparing one's self to others who are less fortunate
  25. An assessment of a  _____ is most likely to be made using a snap judgement?
    waiter
  26. The process whereby expectation about a person cause the person to behave in ways that confirm the expectation is called?
    the self-fulfilling prophecy
  27. Which of the following was NOT given as a reason why sterotypes persist?
    systematic judgments
  28. ___ is a tendency to blame victims for their misfortunes, so that on efeels less likely to be victimized in a similar way?
    Defensive Attribution
  29. An unrealistically negative attitude that is held toward a particular group of people is referred as?
    prejudice
  30. Providing customers with free samples best illustrates which of the following compliance tactics?
    reciprocity norm
  31. The fight-or-flight response is a reaction that begins in response to a threat. This is a ___ reactions?
    involuntary
  32. Which of the following is the best example of "overt" activity?
    jumping
  33. The size of an individual's personal space is related to which of the following?
    situation, gender, cultural background
  34. We are better at sending deceptive messages with our ____ than with other body parts?
    faces
  35. The study of communication through body movement is called?
    kinesics
  36. Anna is speaking rapidly to Steve as she asks him out to lunch. Her paralanguage most likely conveys ___ in this situation?
    anxiety
  37. If you think that someones behavior was caused by situational factors, you're making a?
    external attributions
  38. The process whereby expextations about a person cause the person to behave in ways that confirm the expectations is called?
    self-fullfilling prophecy
  39. Which of the following is NOT consistent with the "what-is-beautiful-is-good" sterotype?
    The tendency to associate attractiveness with positive qualities occurs outside the United States
  40. Which of the following characteristics of the source is least likely to help make persuasion successful?
    Having a stake in the issue at hand
  41. A negative attitude toward some group?
    Prejudice
  42. Indicated which of three lines matched a standard line in length?
    Asch's studies of conformity
  43. The important conclusion from Milgrams study of obiedience is that?
    situation is a stronger indicator of behavior than the kind of person
  44. The local animal shelter send you cute return address labels with cuddly kittens on them. They are hoping that you will send a donation based on the effects of compliance?
    Reciprocity norm
  45. Explain what is meant by the paradox of progress and give two personal examples to illustrate your point?
    1. Modern technology has provided us with numerous time- saving devices, however we complain about not having enough time
  46. Define and explain the relationship between the dependent and independent variables in a psychological experiment, Give an example of each variable in an experiment you might design.
    • Independent variable- is the treatment
    • Dependent variable- is what is being affected or manipulated by the experiment

    Example: Diet pills cause weight loss
  47. Discuss some of the  specific aspects of Milgrim's experiment on obedience to authority that ahve led to questions about the ethic of the procedure?
    Milgrim's experiment was a Q&A session if the answer was wrong the testy was petalized with a shock.

    More questions the higher the voltage.

    Questionaire could had stopped at anytime but they did not and continued
  48. Describe and explain three different Freudian defense mechanism?
    Repression- keeping thoughts or distressed feeling hidden in unconcious.... forgetting about a dr appt

    Displacement-one diverts their feelings to a substitute person or thing...being mad at your boss and taking it out on your spouse at home

    Regression-reverting back to childhood behavior... an adult throwing a temper tantrum when they dont get their way
  49. Why is non verbal communication more important than verbal communication. "Lie to Me"?
    Non verbal communication can show when a person is happy, sad, lying and shameful

    congressman- tell story backwards to catch in lie

    principal- hand in the pocket was hiding something
  50. Living with someone as married couple but not legally married is?
    co-habitation
  51. Sternbergs theory of love is?
    • commitment
    • passion
    • inimacy
  52. Having all three of Stenbergs theory of love is?
    consumate
  53. What are the 5 stages of Frueds stage of pychosxual?
    • oral
    • anal
    • phalic
    • latency
    • genital
  54. An individual participant is studied in depth?
    case study
  55. in psychodynamic theory, the personality component that operates according to the pleasure principle is?
    ID
  56. Central to the Fruedian conceptualization of personality is?
    How people cope with thier own sexual and aggressive urges
  57. Individual credited for discovering classical conditioning?
    Ivan Pavlov
  58. Conditioning of complex behaviors can be accomplished through?
    Shaping
  59. Individual based his theory on the importance of the self-concept?
    Carl Rogers
  60. The humanistic theorist who emphasized the need for self-actualization and the hierarchial organization of needs was?
    Abraham Maslow
  61. Describe one instance of the classical conditioning that occurs in everyday life?
    Being afraid of snakes as a child and hearing they are evil, and as a adult you still terrified and may even more of a phobia
  62. Describe the difference between positive and negative reinforcement and example?
    Postitive- strengthened by positive stimulus..do good on test give them a gift

    Negative- strengthened by unpleasant stimulus.. too many chores, lessen load
  63. An organized collection of beliefs about the self?
    Self-concept
  64. GAD, Phobic disorder, Panic disorder, OCD and Post traumatic stress disorder belong to what group?
    Anxiety Disorder
  65. Somatization disorder(nuerological), paralysis,hypochondriacs belong to what group?
    Somatoform Disorder
  66. Amnesia, Fugue, and DID belong to what group?
    Dissociative disorder
  67. Major depressive disorder and bipolar belong to what group?
    Mood Disorder
  68. Hallucinations, paranoid, subtypes and delusions belong to what group?
    Schizophrenic Disorder
  69. Anorexia and Bulimia belong to what group?
    Eating Disorder

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