male reproductive problems

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male reproductive problems
2013-03-13 21:33:01

ch. 75
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  1. hyperplasia
    increase in the number of cells
  2. what leads to overflow urinary incontinence?
    increased volume of residual urine, the urine leaks around the enlarged prostate causing dribbling
  3. hydroureter
    a gradual dilation of the ureters
  4. hydronephrosis
    dilation of the kidney
  5. BPH
    the result of aging and the influence of androgens that are present in the prostate tissue, such as dihydrotestosterone

    attracts cytokines and other substances
  6. prostatitis
    inflammation and possible infection of the prostate
  7. international prostate symptom score
    the effect of the patients urinary system on the quality of life
  8. luts
    lower urinary tract symptoms
  9. lab assessment
    • -urinalysis
    • -culture
    • -cbc-systemic infection or anemia
    • -bun
    • -psa-prostate specific antigen and serum acid phospatase level
  10. imaging studies
    transabdominal ultrasound and transrectal ultrasound
  11. drugs for bph
    proscar and dutasteride(avodart)

    most commong-finastride and doxazosin
  12. transurethral needle ablation (tuna)
    low radio frequency energy shrinks the prostate
  13. transurethral microwave therapy (tumt)
    high temperatures heat and destroy excess tissue
  14. interstitial laser coagulation (ilc)/contact laser prostatectomy (clp)
    laser energy coagulates excess tissue
  15. electrovaporization of the prostate (evap)
    high frequency electrical current cuts and vaporizes excess tissue
  16. prostatic stents
    placed in the urethra to maintain permanent patency after a procedure for destroying or removing prostatic tissue
    Turp- transurethral resection of the prostate

    when the enlarged portion of the prostate is removed through an endoscope instrument

    the enlarged portion of the prostate gland is then removed in small pieces (prostate chips)
  18. prostatectomy
    entire prostate removal
  19. transurethral incision of the prostate
    small cuts are made into the prostate to relieve pressure on the urethra
  20. how long for cath?
    • turp-several days
    • holep-over night
  21. retrograde ejaculation
    most of the semen flows backwards into the bladder so only a small amount will be ejaculated from the penis
  22. what is the most common type of male cancer
  23. what patients are at higher risk for developing prostate cancer?
    patients with pinĀ  (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia)
  24. is prostate cancer fast?
    no it is slow and progresses in a predictable manner
  25. PSA
    • prostate specific antigen is a glycoprotein produced by the prostate. used to screen for prostate cancer.
    • normal=less than 2.5
  26. bilateral orchiectomy
    removal of both testicles
  27. radiation proctitis
    rectal mucosa inflammation
  28. erectile dysfunction

    inability to achieve or maintain an erection for sexual intercourse
  29. tumescence
  30. testicular exams
  31. testicular cancer
    • rare
    • 20-54 yo
  32. germ cell and non germ cell
    germ cell=arising from sperm producing cells

    non=arising from the stoma, interstitial or leydig cells that produce testosterone
  33. cryptorchidism
    undescended testes
  34. labs for testicular cancer
    • alpha feta protein
    • beta human chorionic gonadotropin
    • lactate dehydrogenase
  35. oligospermia
    low sperm count
  36. azoospermia
    absence of living sperm
  37. unilateral orchiecctomy
    removal of the affected testi
  38. hydrocele
    cystic mass, straw colored fluid that forms around the testis because of impaired lymphatic drainage of the scrotum causing swelling of the tissue surrounding the testis

    no treatment necessary if it is not hurting anything
  39. spermatocele
    sperm containing cyst that develops on the epididymis alongside the testicle
  40. varicocele
    cluster of dilated veins behind and above the testis

    scrotum feels worm like

    can cause infertility
  41. varicocelectomy
    surgical removal of the varicocele
  42. penectomy
    partial or total removal of the penis
  43. priapism
    uncontolled long maintained erection without sexual desire

    affects the 2 corpora cavernosa

    circulation to the penis may be compromised
  44. prostatitis
    inflammation of the prostate gland
  45. prostatodynia
    pelvic floor pain
  46. complications of prostatitis
    • cystitis-inflammation of the bladder
    • epididymitis-inflammation of the epididymus
  47. what causes epididymitis
    staph or e coli

  48. orchiectomy
    removal of both testes
  49. epididymectomy
    excision of the epididymus from the testicle
  50. orchitis
    acute testicular inflammation resulting from trauma or infection

    at risk for sterility