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What are the 4 types of digestion?
What are the canaliculi of the liver and what is their funtion?
- Canals that merge to make bile ductucles
- Collect bile secreted by hepatocytes
What is hardware disease?
- Traumatic reticuloperitonitis
- Piece of ingested metal falls into reticulum, can puncture lining into peritoneal cavity and sometimes the heart. Causes severe inflammation and sometimes pericarditis.
Does a chicken have a gallbladder? A pig?
What enzymes come from the pancreas?
- Lipase: break down fat
- Protease: break down protein
- Amylase: break down carbs
What gases are formed in the rumen?
How do you treat bloat?
- Stomach Tube
- Trocar & cannula
How do you diagnose bloat post mortem?
Look for the "bloat line" in the esophagus
What is jaundice?
Yellowing of skin/eyes due to bilirubin build up (too many RBCs dying, overloaded/damaged liver, unable to move through GIT properly)
What arteries/veins flow to/from liver?
- ToPortal Vein
- Hepatic Artery
What is the role of the heptic artery?
Provide oxygen and nutrients to support the liver
What is the role of the hepatic vein?
Carry filtered blood from liver to inferior vena cava
What are the 3 colon flexures in horses?
What is the colon of a horse used for?
Absorb water, and carbs produced by the breakdown of cellulose in the cecum
What chemical is produced in the rumen for glucose synthesis?
What is acetate used for?
- E source
- Substrate for FA synth in fat and mammary glands
What is butyrate used for?
Ruminal wall E source
What do cows use N for?
Microbial protein synth
What is secreted by the pancreas?
- Exocrine secretions
What are the exocrine hormones involved in digestion?
- Nitric Oxide
- Serotonin (5-HT)
What endocrine hormones are involved in digestion?
- Gastric inhibitory polypeptide
- Substance P
- Gastrin-releasing peptide
What are the effects of the SNS on the GIT?
- Inhibit digestion
- Postganglionic neurons release Norepinephrine
- Decrease smooth muscle motility, exocrine/endocrine secretion
What are the effects of the PSNS on the GIT?
- Promote digetion
- Postganglionic neurons neurons release Ach
- Increase smooth muscle motility, exocrine/endocrine secretion
What is the thymus and what is it's role?
Specialized immune organ that "educates" T-cells. Located in chest cavity.
What are the functions of the liver?
- Glycogen synth
- FA synth
- Triglyc synth
- Lipoprotein synth (VLDL)
- Ketone synth
- Plasma protein synth
- Produce Bile
How does a pig swallow food?
- Moves to back of mouth with tongue
- Laryngeal closure via epiglottis
- Pharyngeal peristalsis
- Striated then smooth muscle of esophagus propel bolus toward stomach
- Relaxation of lower esophageal sphincter
What gives strength to the rumen wall?
Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium