D01 & D03 STUDY GUIDE Jobs and Design of Work Guide and Performance Appraisal
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While there are differences in the meaning of work among countries, similarities appear to exist in ____________ and ___________.
WORK CONTENT and JOB CONTEXT
The process of subdividing and departmentalizing an organization is ____________; whereas the process of linking jobs and departments into a cohesive whole is _______________.
Differentiation / integration
List the types of job design that were discussed in class:
- Job Enlargement
- Job Enrichment
- Job Characteristic Theory
- Scientific Management
Job enlargement was developed to overcome the problem of ______________.
According to Frederick Taylor, the role of management and the industrial engineer is to:
Calibrate and define each task carefully
According to Frederick Taylor, the role of the worker is to:
Execute the task carefully
What was the standardized job approach of scientific management in the early days of the American Industrial Revolution intended to address?
It addressed workers of diverse backgrounds, so that they could work together effectively
List four traits of Scientific Management:
- 1. Emphasized work simplification
- 2. The role of the worker is to execute tasks carefully
- 3. Differential piece rate payment systems
- 4. Jobs were not interesting or complex
- 5. Scientific selection and placement of workers
Job rotation and cross training are variations of _______________.
Both job enrichment and job enlargement were intended to increase ___________.
The job design method aimed at increasing the motivational factors in a job is called?
A significant difference between job enlargement and job enrichment is how jobs are loaded, how so?
- Job Enlargement loads horizontally
- Job Enrichment loads vertically
When a secretarial employee is given the responsibility and authority to handle certain types of correspondence, has the job been enlarged or enriched?
How is the job characteristic theory different from earlier approaches to job design?
It emphasizes the interaction between the individual and the attributes of the job
The degree to which a job entails completion of a whole task or a complete sequence of tasks is _________________.
Enlarging a job is most closely associated with which core job characteristic?
Selecting a textbook, formulating course objectives, specifying course requirements, determining instructional methods, preparing exams, and evaluating student performance is an example of what core job dimension?
Describe people whose jobs are high on the five core dimensions.
They are generally more motivated, satisfied, and more productive than others.
When engaged in their work, how do people employ and express themselves?
Physically, cognitively, and emotionally
If you were to redesign jobs to increase the health and well-being of your work force, similar to Scandinavian concerns, what job characteristics would be the most beneficial?
- Organizations should redesign jobs to increase worker control, reduce worker uncertainty, and
- manage worker conflict
Why might telecommuting not be appropriate for all jobs?
It is neither a cure all nor universally feasible for all jobs
A work arrangement in which employees must be present to perform job duties during a required core time, but starting and ending work times can vary is _____________.
The J.A. Counter & Associates firm has implemented a ROWEing work environment which is a reflection of __________
A reflection of Flex Time (or alternate work pattern)
List 3 elements of ROWE:
- 1. Set measurable goals
- 2. Eradicate negative language
- 3. Ensuring leadership sets positive examples
- 4. Completely flexible schedules
Is job context determined by the amount of responsibility in the job?
What does scientific management undervalue?
The human capacity for thought and ingenuity.
Who founded scientific management?
What does job enlargement propose to overcome?
The limitations of highly specialized work, such as BOREDOM, and the difficulty of coordinating work
What kind of approach does the Job Characteristic Model take?
The person/job fit approach (or model) to the design of work.
According to Kevin, the answer will be True
What does task significance in the Job Characteristic Model mean?
The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people.
Are jobs that exhibit skill variety, task identity and significance, autonomy and experience feedback more likely to be satisfying?
Has work schedule been found to be a separate facet of work autonomy?
Is a person's response to job characteristics and work design equally as important as the design of work?
What do work design and well-being include?
- Increase Control
- Reduce Uncertainty
- Manage Conflict
How long has telecommuting been around?
Since the 1970's
Name 3 things a job analysis should be used as a foundational base for:
Job description, field training programs, performance appraisals, and assessment centers
Name 3 ways to gather job analysis data:
- 1. Questionnaires
- 2. Interviews
- 3. http://online.onecenter.org/
What does the 1978 Uniform Selection Guidelines require employees do?
Make it clear the HR job requirements must be tied to specific job-related factors in order to defend their actions
Why are employers now placing increased emphasis on developing and maintaining current and accurate job descriptions?
Because of the American with Disabilities Act (ADA).
Without the foundation of job analysis, it is difficult for an organization to defend its recruiting, selection/promotion procedures, performance appraisal systems and disciplinary actions.
The 1978 Uniform Selection Guidelines make it clear that HR requirements must be tied to ________________ if the employers are to defend their actions.
Specific job-related factors
What requires governmental employers to have a signed, written release from a person before it can give information about that person to someone else?
Federal Privacy Act of 1974
Why is it important to ask each question exactly the same during an initial job interview?
To be fair and consistent for every candidate
What kind of information have the courts held is too vague to use when making performance based HR decisions?
Trait Based Information
Why are performance appraisals necessary when organizations terminate, promote, or pay people differently?
To defend HR decisions. Performance appraisals are a crucial defense to challenges of HR decisions.
List 3 development functions of performance appraisals:
- 1. Provide Feedback
- 2. Identify Strengths
- 3. Identify areas for employee growth
- 4. Career Planning
In which appraisal method is feedback obtained from various colleagues and constituencies and given to the manager?
What allows the rater to mark an employee's performance on a continuum?
Graphic Rating Scale performance appraisal
What rater error is committed when an appraiser rates all employees within a narrow range (usually the middle or average)?
What should criteria in a legally defensible performance appraisal system be based on?
Job analysis-performance appraisals should be based on job analysis
When designing an assessment center, exercises should be designed primarily to do what?
Provide the candidate with an opportunity to demonstrate those behaviors determined to be related to the job.
NOT ON STUDY GUIDE
______________ feedback to employees can prevent surprises later when a formal evaluation is due.
Day-to-Day Informal Feedback is more important
NOT ON STUDY GUIDE
Essential Job Functions are the fundamental ________ of the job
NOT ON STUDY GUIDE
Can you ask about disabilities during the course of a background investigation?
No. Medical and Psychological tests are given only after a conditional job offer
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