Microbiology Test #3

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Anonymous
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207168
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Microbiology Test #3
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2013-03-14 01:25:41
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Microbial Mechanisms Pathogenicity Diseases Skin Nervous System Cardiovascular Lymphatic Systems Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive
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Microbiology
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  1. What is Pathology?
    The study of disease
  2. What is Etiology?
    The study of the cause of a disease
  3. What is Pathogenesis?
    The development of the disease
  4. What is an Infection?
    Colonization of the body by pathogens
  5. What is Disease?
    An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally
  6. What is Transient Microbiota?
    Bacteria on the body that permanently colonize the host
  7. What is Symbiosis?
    The relationship between normal microbiota and the host
  8. What is Commensalism?
    When one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
  9. What is Mutualism?
    When both organisms benefit
  10. What is Parasitism?
    When one organsim benefits at the expense of the other
  11. What is Opportunistic Pathogens?
    Normal microbiota that can get into a sterile environment and could cause infection
  12. What is Probiotics?
    Live microbes applied to or ingested into the body, intented to exert a beneficial effect
  13. What is a Symptom?
    A change in the body function that is felt by the patient as a result of a disease
  14. What is a Sign?
    A change in the body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease
  15. What is a Syndrome?
    A specific group of signs or symptoms hat accompany a disease
  16. What is a Communicable or Contagious Disease?
    A disease that is easily spread or just spread from one host to another
  17. What are Koch's Postulates?
    • 1. The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease.
    • 2. The pathogen must be isolated from the disease's host and grown in pure culture.
    • 3. The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when it is inoculated into a healthy, susceptible lab animal.
    • 4. The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the orginal pathogen.
  18. What is Incidence?
    A fraction of a population that contracts a disease during a specific time
  19. What is Prevalence?
    A fraction of population having a specific disease at a given time
  20. What is Sporadic Disease?
    Disease that occurs occasionally in a population
  21. What is Endemic?
    Disease constantly present in a population
  22. What is Epidemic?
    Disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time
  23. What is Pandemic?
    Worldwide epidemic
  24. What is Herd Immunity?
    Immunity in most of a population
  25. What is Acute Disease?
    Symptoms develop rapidly
  26. What is Chronic Disease?
    Disease develops slowly
  27. What is Subacute Disease?
    Symptoms between acute and chronic
  28. What is Latent Disease?
    Disease with a period of no symptoms when the causative agent is inactive
  29. What is a Focal Infection?
    Pathogens are limited to a small area of the body
  30. What is Bacteremia?
    Bacteria in the blood
  31. What is Septicemia?
    Growth of bacteria in the blood
  32. What is Toxemia?
    Toxins in the blood
  33. What is Viremia?
    Viruses in the blood
  34. What are the predisposing factors that make the body more susceptible to disease?
    • -Short urethra in females
    • -Inherited traits, such as the sickle cell gene
    • -Climate and weather change
    • -Age
    • -Fatigue
    • -Lifestyle
    • -Chemotherapy
  35. What is the difference between a biological and a mechanical vector?
    • Biological - Pathogens reproduce in vectors
    • Mechanical - Anthropod carries pathogen on feet
  36. What are the 3 major portals of entry for disease?
    • -Mucous membranes
    • -Skin
    • -Parental route
  37. What is the difference between ID50 and LD50?
    • ID50 - The infectious dose for 50% of the test population
    • LD50 - The lethal dose (of a toxin) for 50% of the test population
  38. What is the difference between endo and exotoxins?
    • Endotoxin - Part of the outer portion of the cell wall of a gram (+) bacteria. They are liberated when the bacteria die and the cell wall breaks apart
    • Exotoxin - Produced inside mostly gram (+) bacteria. They are then secreted or released following lysis into the surrounding medium
  39. S. aureus is gram positive. Would it have an endotoxin or an exotoxin?
    Exotoxin
  40. What are the major portals of exit?
    • -Respiratory tract
    • -GI tract
    • -Genitourinary tract
    • -Skin
    • -Blood
  41. How does skin generally avoid infection?
    • -Salts inhibit microbes
    • -Lysozyme hydrolyzes peptidoglycan
    • -Fatty acids inhibit some pathogens
  42. What are mucous membranes?  List 5 mucous membranes.
    • Body orifices, epithelial cells glued to an extracellular matrix, cell secrete mucus, some have cilia.
    • 1. Lining in your mouth
    • 2. Digestive tract
    • 3. Urogenital tract
    • 4. Respiratory tract
    • 5. Lining interior of nose
  43. What microbes are normal on the surface of the skin?
    • -Staphylococci
    • -Micrococci
    • -Diptheroids
  44. What is the difference between an exanthemous and an enanthemous rash?
    • Exanthem - Skin rash caused by an infection
    • Enanthem - A rash on a mucous membrane caused from an infection
  45. What is a Vesicle?
    Small fluid-filled lesions. Smaller than 1cm.
  46. What is a Bullae?
    Larger fluid-filled lesion. Larger than 1cm.
  47. What is a Macule?
    Flat lesion (often reddish)
  48. What is a Papule?
    • Raised lesion. Deeper in the skin.
    • - Pustules are pus filled papules
  49. Describe the following S. aureus skin infections:
    Folliculitis
    Infections of hair follicles
  50. Describe the following S. aureus skin infections:
    Stys
    Folliculitis of an eyelash
  51. Describe the following S. aureus skin infections:
    Furuncles (Boil)
    Abscess, puss surrounded by inflamed tissue
  52. Describe the following S. aureus skin infections:
    Carbuncles
    Extensive furuncle invading other tissue around the infection
  53. Describe the following S. aureus skin infections:
    Impetigo
    Localized pustules that became crusted and rupture
  54. Describe the following S. aureus skin infections:
    Scalded Skin Syndrome
    Exfoliate toxin. Top layer of skin peels. Neonates.
  55. Describe the following S. aureus skin infections:
    TSS
    Entire body desquamation. Systemic shock.
  56. Describe the following Streptococcal skin infections:
    Erysipelas
    Infects dermal layer of skin
  57. Describe the following Streptococcal skin infections:
    Cellulites
    Attack of solid tissue
  58. Describe the following Streptococcal skin infections:
    Myositis
    Attack of muscle
  59. Describe the following Streptococcal skin infections:
    Necrotizing Fasciitis
    Attack of tissue covering muscle
  60. What is pseudomonas and what are the general conditions it is associated with medically?
    • P. aeruginosa - Gram (-) aerobic rod. Produces blue-green pus.
    • Associated with:
    • -Pseudomonas dermatitis
    • -Otitis externa
    • -Post-burn infections
  61. What is acne? What causes it and how is it treated?
    • Acne is the occurrence of inflamed or infected sebaceous glands in the skin.
    • Caused when sebum channels are blocked with sled cells, deep scaring infections.
    • Treated with isotretinoin treatment, antibiotics, peroxide, and visible blue light for some treatments.
  62. Describe Scabies vs. Pediculosis – what causes the conditions and how are they treated?
    • Scabies - mite sacoptes scabiei burrows in skin to lay eggs.
    • Pediculosis - pediculus humanus capitis (Head lice) P.h. corporis (body louse). Feed on blood, lay eggs in hair.
    • Treatment - Topical insecticide treatment
  63. What are the portals of entry for diseases of the nervous system?
    • -Skull or vertebral fractures
    • -Medical procedures
    • -Along peripheral nerves
    • -Blood or lymph
  64. What are the symptoms and treatments for bacterial meningitis?
    • Symptoms - Fever, headache, stiff joints (neck), followed by nausea and vomiting, convulsions, and coma.
    • Treatment - Diagnosis by gram stain of CSF. Treated with cephalosporins.
  65. What causes tetanus? What are the symptoms of tetanus? How is the disease prevented and treated?
    • Cause - Clostridium tetani, Gram (+), endospore forming, obligate anaerobe.
    • Symptoms - Drooling excessive sweating, fever, hand or foot spasms, irritability, swallowing difficulty, uncontrolled urination or defecation.
    • Prevention and Treatment - Vaccination with tetanus toxid booster. Treatment with tetanus immune globulin.
  66. What causes botulism? What are the symptoms? How is the disease prevented and treated?
    • Cause - Clostridium botulirium, gram (+), endospore forming, obligate anaerobe. Disease due to ingestion of botulinal toxin.
    • Symptoms - Flaccid, Paralysis.
    • Prevention treatment - By proper canning. Nitrites prevent endospore germination. Treated with supportive care and antitoxin.
  67. What causes leprosy?  Describe the 2 forms.
    • Mycobacterium leprae. Acid-fast rod that grows best at 30o.
    • Tuberculoid form - loss of sensation in skin area, positive lepromin test.
    • Lepromatous form - disfiguring nodules over body, negative lepromin test.
  68. Describe African Trypanosomiasis – what causes it, what is the vector, how many afflicted and where?
    • Cause - Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (chronic) and T. b. rhodesiense (more acute). Protozoa.
    • Vector - Tsetse fly.
    • Afflicted and Where - 60 million + people, Sub-Saharan African regions.
  69. Describe American Trypanosomiasis – what causes it, what is the vector?
    • Cause - Trypansoma cruzi (protozoa)
    • Vector - Reduviid bug (kissing bug)
  70. What is Sepsis?
    Bacteria growing in the blood
  71. What is Lymphangitis?
    One sign of sepsis. Lymph vessels are inflamed and visible
  72. What is Severe Sepsis?
    Decrease in blood pressure
  73. What is septic shock?
    Low blood pressure that cannot be controlled
  74. How is sepsis different for gram-negative vs. gram-positive microbes?
    • Gram (-) - Endotoxins, antibiotics can worsen condition by killing bacteria.
    • Gram (+) - nosocomial.
  75. What is puerperal sepsis? What causes it? How is it transmitted?
    Childbirth fever. A serious form of septicemia contracted by a woman during or shortly after childbirth, miscarriage or abortion. UTI, breast infection, and/or respiratory tract infection can cause it.
  76. What is Endocarditis?
    Inflammation of the endocardium
  77. What is Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis?
    Alpha-hemolytic streptococci from mouth
  78. What is Acute Bacterial Endocarditis?
    S. aureus from mouth
  79. Describe what can happen to a person who fails to treat Strep throat (there are several):
    Strep antibodies have an affinity for certain body tissues such as the heart valves and kidney tubules. Your immune system starts to attack your own cells in these areas and can lead to conditions of heart valve disease and glomerular nephritis and rheumatic fever.
  80. What causes Tularemia?  How is it transmitted?
    Francisella tularensis AKA rabbit fever or deer fly fever. Transmitted from rabbits and deer by deer flies.
  81. What is Brucellosis (Undulant Fever)? How is it transmitted? What are the symptoms?
    • Brucella (several species). Gram (-) rod that grow in phagocytes.
    • Transmitted via milk or contact with infected animals.
    • Symptoms are undulating fever that spikes to 40oC every morning. Abnormal pain, back pain, chills, excessive sweating, fatigue, fever, headache, joint pain, loss of appetite, weakness, weight loss.

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