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How many pairs of spinal nerves?
31 pairs of spinal nerves
Four segments of the spinal cord/ spine
Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral
Two enlargements of the spinal cord.
Cervical enlargement, Lumbar enlargement
Cervical enlargement supplies.
Cervical enlargement supplies upper limbs
Lumbar enlargement supplies
Lumbar enlargement supplies lower limbs
Tapered end of the spinal cord.
Origins of spinal nerves extending from lumbosacral enlargment and conus medullaris
Spinal cord extends from
foramen magnum to second lumbar vertebra
spinal nerves pass through spinal canal through
The three layers called ____ surround the brain and spinal cord are?
Three meninges are: dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater.
Most superficial meninge, _____, is divide into two layers
Dura mater in divided into outer periosteal dura and inner meningeal dura.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in between these two meninges.
The arachnoid mater and pia mater (the deepest meninge directly superficial to the brian and spinal cord) , in the subarachnoid space.
Epidural space is filled with ____ and is between ____ and ____
- Adipose tissue
- dura mater
- bone of spinal canal
Lumbar puncture/ spinal tap, epidural anesthesia in done where exactly.
Needle is inserted between the spinous processes of the L3 and L4 or L4 and L5 lumber vertebrae, after the end of the spinal cord, through the cauda equina, into the subarachnoid space.
White matter of spinal cord consists of----
- myelinated axons forming tracts
- Three columns (funiculi): ventral, dorsal, lateralEach of these divided into tracts (fasciculi; pathways)
found in grey mater of spinal cord
- cell bodies of motor neurons, dendrites, axons
- Posterior (dorsal)
- Anterior (ventral)
- Lateral (associated with ANS)
deep clefts partially separating left and right halves of spinal cord
Anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus
Roots of spinal cord.
- spinal nerves arise as rootlets then combine to form roots
- Dorsal (posterior) root has a ganglion
- Ventral (anterior)
- Two roots merge laterally and form the spinal nerve
Dorsal root ganglion
sensory neuron cell bodies
Dorsal root carries which type of information
Ventral root carries which type of information
Motor information leaves through ventral root
First pair of spinal nerves exit
between skull and atlas
spinal nerve pairs exit through which sections of the spinal column
- 8 cervical
- 12 thoracic
- 5 lumbar
- 5 sacral
- 1 coccygeal
major branches of Brachial Plexus
- 1- axillary
- 2- radial
- 3- musculocutaneous
- 4- median
- 5- ulnar
- Origin: Posterior cord of Brachial Plexus, C5-C6
- Motor: laterally rotates arm (teres minor)
- Abducts arm (deltiod)
- Sensory: cutaneous, inferior lateral shoulder
- Origin: posterior cord of Brachial Plexus
- Motor: extend elbow, flex elbow, extends/ abducts/adducts wrist, supinates forearm and hand, extends fingers, thumbs,
- sensory: posterior surface of arm and forearm, lateral two-thirds of dorsum of hand.
- origin: lateral cord of Brachial Plexus C5-C7
- Motor: Flexes shoulder, elbow. Supinates forearm and hand.
- sensory: lateral surface of forearm
- Origin: medial cord of brachial plexus, C8-T1
- motor: flexes wrist, fingers. adducts wrist, thumb. controls hypothenar muscles.
- sensory: medial third of hand.
damage = carpal tunnel syndrom
- origin: medial and later cords of Brachial Plexus, C5-T1
- Motor: pronates forearm and hand. flexes and abducts wrist. flexes fingers. thumbs
- sensory: lateral two thirds of hand.
Lumbar and Sacral Plexuses:
sometimes considered lumbosacral plexsus
- 1- femoral
- 2- obturator
- 3- tibial
- 4- common fibular
Parts of the brain
- • Brainstem: connects spinal cord to brain; integration of reflexes necessary for survival
- • Cerebellum: involved in control of locomotion, balance, posture
- • Diencephalon: thalamus, hypothalamus
- • Cerebrum: conscious thought, control
part of PNS arise directly from brain. Two pairs arise from cerebrum; ten pairs arise from brainstem
Lateral fissure separates
Parietal lobe from temporal lobe
Cerebrum: purpose, four lobes
- conscious thought, control
- Frontal lobe:
- Parietal lobe:
- Occipital lobe:
- Temporal lobe:
between the precentral gyrus (primary motorcortex) and postcentral gyrus (primary somatic sensorycortex)
voluntary motor function, motivation,aggression, sense of smell, mood, personality and decision making
reception and evaluation of sensory information except smell, hearing, and vision
reception and integration of visual input
reception and evaluation for smell and hearing; memory, abstract thought, judgment.
Diencephalon is made up of
- Thalamus, hypothalamus
- epithalamus- habenula, pineal gland
- optic chiasm
- pituitary gland?
connects left and right brain
Brainstem is made up of
- Medulla oblongata
Most superior part of brainstem
- Small and superior to pons
- • involved in visual reflexes; receive information from eyes, skin, cerebrum. Movements of head and body toward visual, auditory, and tactile stimulation
- • involved in hearing
- • Superior to the medulla oblongata
- • Nuclei
- – Pontine nuclei: anterior portion, relay between cerebrum and cerebellum
- – Sleep center
- – Respiratory center coordinates with center in medulla
- Most inferior part of brainstem
- • Continuous with spinal cord; has both ascending (sensory)and descending (motor) nerve tracts
- • Regulates reflexes for: heart rate, blood vessel diameter,respiration, swallowing, vomiting, hiccupping, coughing,and sneezing
- • Control of skeletal muscle, coordination, balance, and modulating sound from inner ear.
- Attached to brainstem posterior to pons
- • Cortex folded in ridges called folia
- • Controls muscle movement and tone; involved with learning motor skills
- • balance and eye movements
- • posture, locomotion, fine motor coordination leading to smooth, flowing movements
- • works with cerebrum to plan, practice, learn complex movements
- sensory relay center• Sensory information from spinal cord synapses here before projecting to cerebrum. Special sensory information(except olfactory) also synapses here.Including:
- – auditory information
- – visual information
- – most other types sensory information
- •Motor function
- •Mood modification
- •Emotion regulation
- •Sensory integration
- *After first synapsing in the thalamus, thalamic neurons then send projections to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex, where sensory input it localized.
- Most inferior portion of diencephalon
- olfactory reflexes and emotional responses to odors
- Infundibulum: stalk extending from floor; connectshypothalamus to posterior pituitary gland. Controls endocrine system.
- Receives input from viscera, taste receptors, limbic system,nipples, external genitalia,
- controlling swallowing and shivering
- Important in regulation of mood, emotion,sexual pleasure, satiation, rage, and fear
- Promotes water and food intake Regulate autonomic functions
- Lateral ventricles (first and second): within cerebral hemispheres
- Third ventricle: within diencephalon
- Fourth ventricle: pons and medulla
Trigeminal nerve/dentist nerve
Vestibulocochlear nerve/Auditory nerve
Accessory nerve/Spinal accessory nerve
1. sensory: nose
2. sensory: eye
3. motor: eye muscles (medial, Superior, inferior rectus, inferior oblique)
4. Motor: eyes (superior oblique)
Trigeminal nerve/dentist nerve
5. sensory/motor: the head (three branched nerve)
6. motor: eye muscles (lateral rectus)
- 7. sensory: anterior tongue
- motor: head muscles
Vestibulocochlear nerve/Auditory nerve
- 8. sensory: ear
- vestibular = equilibrium
- cochlear = acoustic
9. sensory/motor: tongue and throat
- 10. sensory: abdomen, thorax, neck, root of tongue.
- motor: pharynx and larynx (autonomic fuctions of heart, digestive organ, spleen, kidneys)
Accessory nerve/Spinal accessory nerve
11. motor: neck
12. motor: tongue
a spider, spider web
adduct muscles of thigh.. gracilis
anterior thigh... sartorius
- tibial and fibular nerve united
- ...fibulous longus
Information goes to olfactory cortex of the temporal lobe without going through thalamus (only major sense that does not go through thalamus).
different odor receptors
7 primary odors
- – Camphoraceous (moth balls)
- – Musky
- – Floral
- – Pepperminty
- – Ethereal (fresh pears)
- – Pungent
- – Putrid
The surface of the tongue is covered in
- Taste bud
- – Taste buds are oval structures embedded in the epithelium of the tongue and mouth.
- – 10,000.
- – Replaced about every 10 days
- 1) Sour. Acids.
- 2) Salty. Shares lowest sensitivity with sweet. Anything with Na+causes depolarization.
- 3) Bitter. Highest sensitivity. Sensation produced by alkaloids(bases), which are toxic.
- 4) Sweet. Shares lowest sensitivity with salty. Sugars, some carbohydrates, and some proteins (NutraSweet: aspartame).
- 5) Umami (savory). Proteins.
- Parasympathetic fibers from Facial Nerve (CN VII)
- lacrimal gland: tears
holes in corner of eye for tears drainage
- 4. Rectus muscles: insert on sclera anterior to center of sphere. Move eyeball and thus pupil laterally,superiorly, inferiorly, and medially
- 2. Oblique muscles: insert onto the posterolateral margin of the eyeball and both laterally deviate the eyeball. The superior oblique passes through a pulley-like trochlea
Produces aqueous humor
Three main layers of the eye
- Retina (nervous tunic) (deep)
- Choroid (vascular tunic) middle
- sclera (fibrous tunic) superficial (white)
iris is part of which layer
ciliary body is part of which layer
- fibrous tunic
- connective tissue matrix. Collagen fibers are small, thus transparent. Low water content(water would scatter light). Avascular,transparent, allows light to enter eye; bends and refracts light.
white outer layer. Maintains shape,protects internal structures, provides muscle attachment point, continuous with cornea.
- Smooth muscle determines size of pupil.
- • Sphincter pupillae:parasympathetic(CNIII)
- • Dilator pupillae:sympathetic
- produces aqueous humor that fills anterior chamber
- • Ciliary muscles:control lens shape;smooth muscle.
- Held by suspensory ligaments attached to ciliary muscles. Changes shape as ciliary muscles contract and relax.
- • Transparent, biconvex
- • Lens changes shape causing adjustment of focal point on the retina
- gelatinous substance, support, clear
- fills vitreous chamber
- – Covers inner surface of eyeball
- – Contains photoreceptor cells
- – 120 million rods
- – 6 – 7 million cones
- -Bipolar photoreceptor cells; noncolor vision.
- -Found over most of retina, but not in fovea centralis. More sensitive to light than cones.
- -Responsible for vision under conditions of reduced light
- function: color vision and acuity (sharpness)
- -require bright light to function
- -found throughout retina, but most tightly packed in fovea centralis.(The ability to see fine images is greatest here. Objects are best seen when viewed directly in front.)
- -As light intensity decreases so does our ability to see color.
- -Visual pigment that respond to blue, red and green light
- -Overlap in response to light, thus interpretations of gradation o fcolor possible: several millions
visual fields partially overlap yielding depth perception
auditory _____ (bones) in middle ear
- 1. malleus (hammer)
- 2. incus (anvil)
- 3. stapes (stirrup)
Muscles of the Middle Ear
- Tensor tympani: inserts on malleus; innervated by cranial nerve V
- Stapedius: inserts on stapes and innervated by cranial nerve VII
- muscles contract during loud noises and prevent damaging vibrations
- – Bony: tunnels and chambers within the temporal bone
- 1) Cochlea: hearing
- 2) Vestibule: balance
- 3) Semicircular canals: balance
- – Membranous: similarly shaped but smaller set of tunnels and chambers inside the bony labyrinth
- – Endolymph: in membranous labyrinth
- – Perilymph: space between membranous labyrinth and endosteum of bony labyrinth
Kinetic (dynamic) labyrinth: semicircularcanals
Evaluates movement of the head in three dimensional space
- Static labyrinth: utricle and saccule of the vestibule
- -Evaluates position of head relative to gravity
- -Detects linear acceleration and deceleration (as in a car)
snail shell, spiral
collection of neuron cell bodies outside CNS
extensive network of axons, and sometimes neuron cell bodies, located outside CNS
a bundle of axons and their sheaths that connects CNS to sensory receptors, muscles, and glands
ending of neurons that detect such things as temperature, pain, touch, pressure,light, sound, odors
(afferent):transmits action potentials from receptors to CNS.
(efferent):transmits action potentials from CNS to effectors(muscles, glands)
Prepares body for physical activity.
Regulates resting or vegetative functions such as digesting food or emptying of the urinary bladder.
Autonomic (self-serving) nervous system (ANS):
- from CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and certain glands.
- involuntary control.
- Two neuron system: first from CNS to ganglion; second from ganglion to effector (organs).
Somatic (bodily) nervous system:
- CNS to skeletal muscles.
- Single neuron system.
transmits action potential toward synapse
cell that receives the action potential
the junction between two cells where they communicate with each other.
Parts of the Neuron
- 1) Neuron Cell Body (soma): Nucleus, organelles
- 2) Dendrites (INPUT): short, often highly branched.
- 3) Axons (OUTPUT): few millimeters to a meter in length
- – Trigger zone: site where action potentials are generated
- – Synaptic vesicles within presynaptic terminals contain neurotransmitters
(INPUT): short, often highly branched.
(OUTPUT): few millimeters to a meter in length
Structural classification of neurons
- 1) Multipolar: most neurons in CNS; motor neurons
- 2) Bipolar: sensory in retina of the eye and nose
- 3) Unipolar: single process that divides into two branches. Part that extends to the periphery has dendrite-like sensory receptors.
ependymal cells and blood vessels within certain regions of ventricles. Secrete cerebrospinal fluid. Cilia help move fluid thru the ventricles of the brain.
- Processes form feet that cover the surfaces of neurons and blood vessels.
- Regulate what substances reach the CNS from the blood (blood-brain barrier).
- Provide secondary energy source for neurons (lactic acid).
- Stimulate blood vessel dilation
Line brain ventricles and central canal around spinal cord..