Nervous system. Midterm

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dvdromm
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Nervous system. Midterm
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2013-03-14 01:46:08
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Anatomy Physiology
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Nervous system
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  1. Spinal cord.
    How many pairs of spinal nerves?
    31 pairs of spinal nerves
  2. Four segments of the spinal cord/ spine
    Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral
  3. Two enlargements of the spinal cord.
    Cervical enlargement, Lumbar enlargement
  4. Cervical enlargement supplies.
    Cervical enlargement supplies upper limbs
  5. Lumbar enlargement supplies
    Lumbar enlargement supplies lower limbs
  6. Conus medullaris
    Tapered end of the spinal cord.
  7. Cauda equina
    Origins of spinal nerves extending from lumbosacral enlargment and conus medullaris
  8. Spinal cord extends from
    foramen magnum to second lumbar vertebra
  9. spinal nerves pass through spinal canal through
    inter-vertebral foramen
  10. The three layers called ____ surround the brain and spinal cord are?
    Three meninges are: dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater.
  11. Most superficial meninge, _____, is divide into two layers
    Dura mater in divided into outer periosteal dura and inner meningeal dura.
  12. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in between these two meninges.
    The arachnoid mater and pia mater (the deepest meninge directly superficial to the brian and spinal cord) , in the subarachnoid space.
  13. Epidural space is filled with ____ and is between ____ and ____
    • Adipose tissue
    • dura mater
    • bone of spinal canal
  14. Lumbar puncture/ spinal tap, epidural anesthesia in done where exactly.
    Needle is inserted between the spinous processes of the L3 and L4 or L4 and L5 lumber vertebrae, after the end of the spinal cord, through the cauda equina, into the subarachnoid space.
  15. White matter of spinal cord consists of----
    • myelinated axons forming tracts
    • Three columns (funiculi): ventral, dorsal, lateralEach of these divided into tracts (fasciculi; pathways)
  16. found in grey mater of spinal cord
    • cell bodies of motor neurons, dendrites, axons
    •  -Horns
    • Posterior (dorsal)
    • Anterior (ventral)
    • Lateral (associated with ANS)
  17. deep clefts partially separating left and right halves of spinal cord
    Anterior median fissure and posterior median sulcus
  18. Roots of spinal cord.
    • spinal nerves arise as rootlets then combine to form roots
    • Dorsal (posterior) root has a ganglion
    • Ventral (anterior)
    • Two roots merge laterally and form the spinal nerve
  19. Dorsal root ganglion
    sensory neuron cell bodies
  20. Dorsal root carries which type of information
    sensory only
  21. Ventral root carries which type of information
    Motor information leaves through ventral root
  22. First pair of spinal nerves exit
    between skull and atlas
  23. spinal nerve pairs exit through which sections of the spinal column
    • 8 cervical
    • 12 thoracic
    • 5 lumbar
    • 5 sacral
    • 1 coccygeal
  24. major branches of Brachial Plexus
    • 1- axillary
    • 2- radial
    • 3- musculocutaneous
    • 4- median
    • 5- ulnar
  25. Axillary Nerve
    • Origin: Posterior cord of Brachial Plexus, C5-C6
    • Motor: laterally rotates arm (teres minor)
    •           Abducts arm (deltiod)
    • Sensory: cutaneous, inferior lateral shoulder
  26. Radial Nerve
    • Origin: posterior cord of Brachial Plexus
    • Motor: extend elbow, flex elbow, extends/ abducts/adducts wrist, supinates forearm and hand, extends fingers, thumbs,
    • sensory: posterior surface of arm and forearm, lateral two-thirds of dorsum of hand.
  27. Musculocutaneous Nerve
    • origin: lateral cord of Brachial Plexus C5-C7
    • Motor: Flexes shoulder, elbow. Supinates forearm and hand.
    • sensory: lateral surface of forearm
  28. Ulnar nerve
    "funny bone"
    • Origin: medial cord of brachial plexus, C8-T1
    • motor: flexes wrist, fingers. adducts wrist, thumb. controls hypothenar muscles.
    • sensory: medial third of hand.
  29. Median nerve
    damage = carpal tunnel syndrom
    • origin: medial and later cords of Brachial Plexus, C5-T1
    • Motor: pronates forearm and hand. flexes and abducts wrist. flexes fingers. thumbs
    • sensory: lateral two thirds of hand.
  30. Lumbar and Sacral Plexuses:
    sometimes considered lumbosacral plexsus
    • 1- femoral
    • 2- obturator
    • 3- tibial
    • 4- common fibular
  31. Parts of the brain
    • • Brainstem: connects spinal cord to brain; integration of reflexes necessary for survival
    • • Cerebellum: involved in control of locomotion, balance, posture
    • • Diencephalon: thalamus, hypothalamus
    • • Cerebrum: conscious thought, control
  32. Cranial nerves
    part of PNS arise directly from brain. Two pairs arise from cerebrum; ten pairs arise from brainstem
  33. Brain
    Lateral fissure separates
    Parietal lobe from temporal lobe
  34. Cerebrum: purpose, four lobes
    • conscious thought, control
    • Frontal lobe:
    • Parietal lobe:
    • Occipital lobe:
    • Temporal lobe:
  35. Central sulcus:
    between the precentral gyrus (primary motorcortex) and postcentral gyrus (primary somatic sensorycortex)
  36. Frontal lobe:
    voluntary motor function, motivation,aggression, sense of smell, mood, personality and decision making
  37. Parietal lobe
    reception and evaluation of sensory information except smell, hearing, and vision
  38. Occipital lobe:
    reception and integration of visual input
  39. Temporal lobe:
    reception and evaluation for smell and hearing; memory, abstract thought, judgment.
  40. Diencephalon is made up of
    • Thalamus, hypothalamus
    • epithalamus- habenula, pineal gland
    • optic chiasm
    • pituitary gland?
  41. corpus callosum
    connects left and right brain
  42. Brainstem is made up of
    • Midbrain
    • Pons
    • Medulla oblongata
  43. Most superior part of brainstem
    mid-brain
  44. Midbrain
    • Small and superior to pons
    • involved in visual reflexes; receive information from eyes, skin, cerebrum. Movements of head and body toward visual, auditory, and tactile stimulation
    • • involved in hearing
  45. Pons
    • • Superior to the medulla oblongata
    • • Nuclei
    • – Pontine nuclei: anterior portion, relay between cerebrum and cerebellum
    • Sleep center
    • Respiratory center coordinates with center in medulla
  46. Medulla Oblongata
    • Most inferior part of brainstem
    • • Continuous with spinal cord; has both ascending (sensory)and descending (motor) nerve tracts
    • • Regulates reflexes for: heart rate, blood vessel diameter,respiration, swallowing, vomiting, hiccupping, coughing,and sneezing
    • • Control of skeletal muscle, coordination, balance, and modulating sound from inner ear.
  47. Cerebellum
    • Attached to brainstem posterior to pons
    • • Cortex folded in ridges called folia
    • • Controls muscle movement and tone; involved with learning motor skills
    • • balance and eye movements
    • • posture, locomotion, fine motor coordination leading to smooth, flowing movements
    • • works with cerebrum to plan, practice, learn complex movements
  48. Thalamus
    • sensory relay center
    • • Sensory information from spinal cord synapses here before projecting to cerebrum. Special sensory information(except olfactory) also synapses here.Including:
    • – auditory information
    • – visual information
    • – most other types sensory information
    • •Motor function
    • •Mood modification
    • •Emotion regulation
    • •Sensory integration
    • *After first synapsing in the thalamus, thalamic neurons then send projections to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex, where sensory input it localized.
  49. Hypothalamus
    •  Most inferior portion of diencephalon
    •  olfactory reflexes and emotional responses to odors
    • Infundibulum: stalk extending from floor; connectshypothalamus to posterior pituitary gland. Controls endocrine system.
    • Receives input from viscera, taste receptors, limbic system,nipples, external genitalia,
    • controlling swallowing and shivering
    • Important in regulation of mood, emotion,sexual pleasure, satiation, rage, and fear
    • Promotes water and food intake Regulate autonomic functions
  50. Ventricles
    • Lateral ventricles (first and second): within cerebral hemispheres
    • Third ventricle: within diencephalon
    • Fourth ventricle: pons and medulla
  51. I
    Olfactory nerve
  52. II
    Optic nerve
  53. III
    Oculomotor nerve
  54. IV
    Trochlear nerve
  55. V
    Trigeminal nerve/dentist nerve
  56. VI
    Abducens nerve
  57. VII
    Facial nerve
  58. VIII
    Vestibulocochlear nerve/Auditory nerve
  59. IX
    Glossopharyngeal nerve
  60. X
    Vagus nerve
  61. XI
    Accessory nerve/Spinal accessory nerve
  62. XII
    Hypoglossal nerve
  63. Olfactory nerve
    1. sensory: nose
  64. Optic nerve
    2. sensory: eye
  65. Oculomotor nerve
    3. motor: eye muscles (medial, Superior, inferior rectus, inferior oblique)
  66. Trochlear nerve
    4. Motor: eyes (superior oblique)
  67. Trigeminal nerve/dentist nerve
    5. sensory/motor: the head (three branched nerve)
  68. Abducens nerve
    6. motor: eye muscles (lateral rectus)
  69. Facial nerve
    • 7. sensory: anterior tongue
    •     motor: head muscles
  70. Vestibulocochlear nerve/Auditory nerve
    • 8. sensory: ear
    •     vestibular = equilibrium
    •     cochlear = acoustic
  71. Glossopharyngeal nerve
    9. sensory/motor: tongue and throat
  72. Vagus nerve
    • 10. sensory: abdomen, thorax, neck, root of tongue.
    • motor: pharynx and larynx (autonomic fuctions of heart, digestive organ, spleen, kidneys)
  73. Accessory nerve/Spinal accessory nerve
    11. motor: neck
  74. Hypoglossal nerve
    12. motor: tongue
  75. pia
    tender
  76. Arachni
    a spider, spider web
  77. Dura
    hard
  78. Sub
    under, below
  79. Cauda equina
    horse’s hair
  80. Cervic
    the neck
  81. Thora
    a breastplate
  82. Lumb
    the loin
  83. Olfaction
    sense of smell
  84. obturator nerve
    adduct muscles of thigh.. gracilis
  85. femoral nerve
    anterior thigh... sartorius
  86. sciatic nerve
    • tibial and fibular nerve united
    • ...fibulous longus
  87. Information goes to olfactory cortex of the temporal lobe without going through thalamus (only major sense that does not go through thalamus).
  88. different odor receptors
    1000
  89. 7 primary odors
    • – Camphoraceous (moth balls)
    • – Musky
    • – Floral
    • – Pepperminty
    • – Ethereal (fresh pears)
    • – Pungent
    • – Putrid
  90. The surface of the tongue is covered in
    • papillae
    • Taste bud
    • – Taste buds are oval structures embedded in the epithelium of the tongue and mouth.
    • – 10,000.
    • – Replaced about every 10 days
  91. Taste Types
    • 1) Sour. Acids.
    • 2) Salty. Shares lowest sensitivity with sweet. Anything with Na+causes depolarization.
    • 3) Bitter. Highest sensitivity. Sensation produced by alkaloids(bases), which are toxic.
    • 4) Sweet. Shares lowest sensitivity with salty. Sugars, some carbohydrates, and some proteins (NutraSweet: aspartame).
    • 5) Umami (savory). Proteins.
  92. Lacrimal Apparatus
    • Parasympathetic fibers from Facial Nerve (CN VII)
    • lacrimal gland: tears
  93. puncta
    holes in corner of eye for tears drainage
  94. Eye muscles
    • 4. Rectus muscles: insert on sclera anterior to center of sphere. Move eyeball and thus pupil laterally,superiorly, inferiorly, and medially
    • 2. Oblique muscles: insert onto the posterolateral margin of the eyeball and both laterally deviate the eyeball. The superior oblique passes through a pulley-like trochlea
  95. Produces aqueous humor
    ciliary body
  96. Three main layers of the eye
    • Retina (nervous tunic) (deep)
    • Choroid (vascular tunic) middle
    • sclera (fibrous tunic) superficial (white)
  97. iris is part of which layer
    vascular tunic
  98. ciliary body is part of which layer
    vascular tunic
  99. cornea
    • fibrous tunic
    • connective tissue matrix. Collagen fibers are small, thus transparent. Low water content(water would scatter light). Avascular,transparent, allows light to enter eye; bends and refracts light.
  100. Sclera
    white outer layer. Maintains shape,protects internal structures, provides muscle attachment point, continuous with cornea.
  101. Iris
    • Smooth muscle determines size of pupil.
    • • Sphincter pupillae:parasympathetic(CNIII)
    • • Dilator pupillae:sympathetic
  102. Ciliary body
    • produces aqueous humor that fills anterior chamber
    • • Ciliary muscles:control lens shape;smooth muscle.
  103. The Lens
    • Held by suspensory ligaments attached to ciliary muscles. Changes shape as ciliary muscles contract and relax.
    • • Transparent, biconvex
    • • Lens changes shape causing adjustment of focal point on the retina
  104. vitreous humor
    • gelatinous substance, support, clear
    • fills vitreous chamber
  105. retina
    • – Covers inner surface of eyeball
    • – Contains photoreceptor cells
    • – 120 million rods
    • – 6 – 7 million cones
  106. Rods
    • -Bipolar photoreceptor cells; noncolor vision.
    • -Found over most of retina, but not in fovea centralis. More sensitive to light than cones.
    • -Responsible for vision under conditions of reduced light
  107. Cones
    • function: color vision and acuity (sharpness)
    • -require bright light to function
    • -found throughout retina, but most tightly packed in fovea centralis.(The ability to see fine images is greatest here. Objects are best seen when viewed directly in front.)
    • -As light intensity decreases so does our ability to see color.
    • -Visual pigment that respond to blue, red and green light
    • -Overlap in response to light, thus interpretations of gradation o fcolor possible: several millions
  108. Binocular vision
    visual fields partially overlap yielding depth perception
  109. gusta
    taste
  110. opti
    the eye, vision
  111. olfact
    smell
  112. auditory _____ (bones) in middle ear
    • ossicles
    • 1. malleus (hammer)
    • 2. incus (anvil)
    • 3. stapes (stirrup)
  113. tympanic membrane
    ear drum
  114. Muscles of the Middle Ear
    • Tensor tympani: inserts on malleus; innervated by cranial nerve V
    • Stapedius: inserts on stapes and innervated by cranial nerve VII
    • muscles contract during loud noises and prevent damaging vibrations
  115. Labyrinths
    • – Bony: tunnels and chambers within the temporal bone
    • 1) Cochlea: hearing
    • 2) Vestibule: balance
    • 3) Semicircular canals: balance
    • – Membranous: similarly shaped but smaller set of tunnels and chambers inside the bony labyrinth
  116. Lymphs
    • – Endolymph: in membranous labyrinth
    • – Perilymph: space between membranous labyrinth and endosteum of bony labyrinth
  117. Kinetic (dynamic) labyrinth: semicircularcanals
    Evaluates movement of the head in three dimensional space
    • Static labyrinth: utricle and saccule of the vestibule
    • -Evaluates position of head relative to gravity
    • -Detects linear acceleration and deceleration (as in a car)
  118. ossic
    a little bone
  119. lymph
    water
  120. labyrinth
    a maze
  121. audi
    hear
  122. cochlea
    snail shell, spiral
  123. Ganglion
    collection of neuron cell bodies outside CNS
  124. Plexus
    extensive network of axons, and sometimes neuron cell bodies, located outside CNS
  125. Nerve
    a bundle of axons and their sheaths that connects CNS to sensory receptors, muscles, and glands
  126. Sensory receptors
    ending of neurons that detect such things as temperature, pain, touch, pressure,light, sound, odors
  127. Sensory
    (afferent):transmits action potentials from receptors to CNS.
  128. Motor
    (efferent):transmits action potentials from CNS to effectors(muscles, glands)
  129. Sympathetic ANS
    Prepares body for physical activity.
  130. Parasympathetic ANS
    Regulates resting or vegetative functions such as digesting food or emptying of the urinary bladder.
  131. Autonomic (self-serving) nervous system (ANS):
    • from CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and certain glands.
    • involuntary control.
    • Two neuron system: first from CNS to ganglion; second from ganglion to effector (organs).
  132. Somatic (bodily) nervous system:
    • CNS to skeletal muscles.
    • Single neuron system.
  133. Presynaptic cell
    transmits action potential toward synapse
  134. Postsynaptic cell
    cell that receives the action potential
  135. SYNAPSE
    the junction between two cells where they communicate with each other.
  136. Parts of the Neuron
    • 1) Neuron Cell Body (soma): Nucleus, organelles
    • 2) Dendrites (INPUT): short, often highly branched.
    • 3) Axons (OUTPUT): few millimeters to a meter in length
    • – Trigger zone: site where action potentials are generated
    • – Synaptic vesicles within presynaptic terminals contain neurotransmitters
  137. Dendrites
    (INPUT): short, often highly branched.
  138. Axons
    (OUTPUT): few millimeters to a meter in length
  139. Structural classification of neurons
    • 1) Multipolar: most neurons in CNS; motor neurons
    • 2) Bipolar: sensory in retina of the eye and nose
    • 3) Unipolar: single process that divides into two branches. Part that extends to the periphery has dendrite-like sensory receptors.
  140. Choroid plexus
    ependymal cells and blood vessels within certain regions of ventricles. Secrete cerebrospinal fluid. Cilia help move fluid thru the ventricles  of the brain.
  141. Astrocytes
    • Processes form feet that cover the surfaces of neurons and blood vessels.
    • Regulate what substances reach the CNS from the blood (blood-brain barrier).
    • Provide secondary energy source for neurons (lactic acid).
    • Stimulate blood vessel dilation
  142. Ependymal Cells
    Line brain ventricles and central canal around spinal cord..
  143. soma
    a body
  144. auto
    self
  145. oligo
    few
  146. dendro
    a tree
  147. glia
    glue

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