Body Structure and Function Ch. 15
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Functions of the Nasal Mucosa
- Moistens the incoming air
- Traps dust and microorganisms
- Swept by the cilia to the pharynx
What is nasal mucosa and how is the surface area increased?
- Ciliate epithelium with goblet cells
- Surface area is increased by the conchae
Where is the pharynx?
posterior to nasal and oral cavities
What are the 3 sections of the pharynx?
- 1. Nasopharynx
- 2. Oropharynx
- 3. Laryngopharynx
Nasopharynx - What is the location and its function?
- Above the soft palate
- Passageway for air only
- Eustachian tubes from the middle ears open into it
- The adenoid is a lymph nodule on the posterior wall
Oropharynx - What is the location and its function?
- Behind the mouth
- Passageway for both air and food
- Palatine tonsils are on the lateral walls
What is the function of the respiratory system?
- moves air into and out of the lungs
- exchange of o2 and co2 between the air and blood
the functioning of the respiratory system depends directly on the proper functioning of the circulatory system
What does the upper respiratory tract consist of?
parts outside the chest cavity
What does the lower respiratory tract consist of?
parts within the chest cavity
What is the function of hair inside the nostril?
The hair inside the nostrils block the entry of dust
What is the function of the larynx?
- Voice box
- airway between the pharynx and trachea
What is the larynx made of and which is the largest?
- made of 9 cartilages
- thyroid cartilage is largest and most anterior (adams's apple)
Which structure is the uppermost cartilage that covers the larynx during swallowing?
Which cranial nerves are for speaking?
The vocal cords are ____ to the glottis
What is the glottis?
The opening for air
How are sounds that may be turned into speech produced?
Vocal cords are pulled across the glottis and vibrated by exhaled air
Where does the trachea extend from and to?
Extends from the larynx to the primary bronchi
What is located in the tracheal wall that keep the trachea open?
16 to 20 c shaped cartilages
What is mucosa in the trachea?
Ciliate epithelium with goblet cella
What is the function of cilia in the trachea?
- Sweep mucus
- trap dust and microorganisms upward to thepharynx
T or F: bronchioles have cartilage in their walls
What is the function of the rib cage?
Protects lungs from mechanical injury
What pleural membrane lines the chest wall?
What pleural membrane covers the lungs?
What is the function of serous fluid?
- Located between the two layers
- prevents friction and keeps membranes together during breathing
What are pleural membranes?
Serous membranes of the thoracic cavity
Movement of air into and out of the lungs; inhalation and exhalation
what are the two respiratory centers?
What are the respiratory muscles?
- external and internal intercostal muscles
Amount of air in one normal inhalation and exhalation
Minute respiratory volume
Amount of air inhaled and exhaled in one minute
The amount of air beyond tidal in a maximal inhalation
During exhalation, the chest cavity becomes ____ and ____ the lungs
- Cavity becomes smaller
- compresses the lungs
The mount of air beyond tidal in a maximal inhalation
The sum of tidal volume, inspiratory and expiratory reserves
the amount of air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful exhalation; provides continuous exchange of gases
Forced Expiratory Volume
the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled in 1, 2, or 3 seconds
Air that reaches the alveoli for gas exchange, depends on normal and thoracic lung compliance
Anatomic dead Space
Air still in the respiratory passages at the end of inhlataion
Physiological dead space
The volume of nonfunctional alveoli decreases compliance and thus decreases gas exchange
During inhalation, motor impulses from ___ travel along ___ to ___, which contracts and moves ____.
medulla travel along phrenic nerves to diaphragm. contracts and moves down
During inhalation, impulses are sent along intercostal nerves to external intercostal muscles, which pulls rib ___ and _____.
up and out
During inhalation, the chest cavity is ___ and expands the _____
expanded and expands the parietal pleura
During inhalation, the _____ adheres to the parietal pleura and is also ____ and in turn ___ the lungs
parietal pleura, expanded, expands
During inhalation, ____ decreases and air rushes into the lungs
During exhalation, motor impulses from the medulla ____, and the diaphragm and external muscles ____.
During exhalation, the chest cavity becomes ___ and ____ the lungs.
During exhalation, the _____ recoil and further compresses the ___.
elastic lungs, alveoli
During exhalation, ____ increases, and air is forced ___ of the lungs.
intrapulmonic pressure, out
Normal exhalation is (active/passive)
What happens during forced exhalation?
- contraction of the internal intercostal muscle pulls the ribs down and in
- contraction of the abdominal muscles forces the diaphragm upward
What percent of inhaled air is 02? How about CO2?
21% O2, 0.04% CO2
What percent of exhaled air is O2? How about CO2?
16% O2 and 4.5% CO2
exchange of gases between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries
exchange of gases between blood in the system capillaries and tissue fluid
Where is oxygen carried?
Oxygen is carried by the iron of hemoglobin in the RBCs
What contains the inspiration and expiration center?
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