Body Structure and Function Ch. 15

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kaitierowe
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207224
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Body Structure and Function Ch. 15
Updated:
2013-03-31 21:23:19
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Body Structure Function 15
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The Respiratory System
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  1. Functions of the Nasal Mucosa
    • Moistens the incoming air
    • Traps dust and microorganisms
    • Swept by the cilia to the pharynx
  2. What is nasal mucosa and how is the surface area increased?
    • Ciliate epithelium with goblet cells
    • Surface area is increased by the conchae
  3. Where is the pharynx?
    posterior to nasal and oral cavities
  4. What are the 3 sections of the pharynx?
    • 1. Nasopharynx
    • 2. Oropharynx
    • 3. Laryngopharynx
  5. Nasopharynx - What is the location and its function?
    • Above the soft palate
    • Passageway for air only
    • Eustachian tubes from the middle ears open into it
    • The adenoid is a lymph nodule on the posterior wall
  6. Oropharynx - What is the location and its function?
    • Behind the mouth
    • Passageway for both air and food
    • Palatine tonsils are on the lateral walls
  7. What is the function of the respiratory system?
    • moves air into and out of the lungs
    • exchange of o2 and co2 between the air and blood

    the functioning of the respiratory system depends directly on the proper functioning of the circulatory system
  8. What does the upper respiratory tract consist of?
    parts outside the chest cavity
  9. What does the lower respiratory tract consist of?
    parts within the chest cavity
  10. What is the function of hair inside the nostril?
    The hair inside the nostrils block the entry of dust
  11. What is the function of the larynx?
    • Voice box
    • airway between the pharynx and trachea
  12. What is the larynx made of and which is the largest?
    • made of 9 cartilages
    • thyroid cartilage is largest and most anterior (adams's apple)
  13. Which structure is the uppermost cartilage that covers the larynx during swallowing?
    Epiglottis
  14. Which cranial nerves are for speaking?
    • Vagus
    • accessory
  15. The vocal cords are ____ to the glottis
    Lateral
  16. What is the glottis?
    The opening for air
  17. How are sounds that may be turned into speech produced?
    Vocal cords are pulled across the glottis and vibrated by exhaled air
  18. Where does the trachea extend from and to?
    Extends from the larynx to the primary bronchi
  19. What is located in the tracheal wall that keep the trachea open?
    16 to 20 c shaped cartilages
  20. What is mucosa in the trachea?
    Ciliate epithelium with goblet cella
  21. What is the function of cilia in the trachea?
    • Sweep mucus
    • trap dust and microorganisms upward to thepharynx
  22. T or F: bronchioles have cartilage in their walls
    false
  23. What is the function of the rib cage?
    Protects lungs from mechanical injury
  24. What pleural membrane lines the chest wall?
    Parietal pleura
  25. What  pleural membrane covers the lungs?
    Visceral pleura
  26. What is the function of serous fluid?
    • Located between the two layers
    • prevents friction and keeps membranes together during breathing
  27. What are pleural membranes?
    Serous membranes of the thoracic cavity
  28. Ventilation
    Movement of air into and out of the lungs; inhalation and exhalation
  29. what are the two respiratory centers?
    • Medulla
    • pons
  30. What are the respiratory muscles?
    • Diaphragm
    • external and internal intercostal muscles
  31. tidal volume
    Amount of air in one normal inhalation and exhalation
  32. Minute respiratory volume
    Amount of air inhaled and exhaled in one minute
  33. Inspiratory reserve
    The amount of air beyond tidal in a maximal inhalation
  34. During exhalation, the chest cavity becomes ____ and ____ the lungs
    • Cavity becomes smaller
    • compresses the lungs
  35. Expiratory Reserve
    The mount of air beyond tidal in a maximal inhalation
  36. Vital Capacity
    The sum of tidal volume, inspiratory and expiratory reserves
  37. Residual Air
    the amount of air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful exhalation; provides continuous exchange of gases
  38. Forced Expiratory Volume
    the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled in 1, 2, or 3 seconds
  39. Alveolar Ventilation
    Air that reaches the alveoli for gas exchange, depends on normal and thoracic lung compliance
  40. Anatomic dead Space
    Air still in the respiratory passages at the end of inhlataion
  41. Physiological dead space
    The volume of nonfunctional alveoli decreases compliance and thus decreases gas exchange
  42. During inhalation, motor impulses from ___ travel along ___ to ___, which contracts and moves ____.
    medulla travel along phrenic nerves to diaphragm. contracts and moves down
  43. During inhalation, impulses are sent along intercostal nerves to external intercostal muscles, which pulls rib ___ and _____.
    up and out
  44. During inhalation, the chest cavity is ___ and expands the _____
    expanded and expands the parietal pleura
  45. During inhalation, the _____ adheres to the parietal pleura and is also ____ and in turn ___ the lungs
    parietal pleura, expanded, expands
  46. During inhalation, ____ decreases and air rushes into the lungs
    intrapulmonic pressure
  47. During exhalation, motor impulses from the medulla ____, and the diaphragm and external muscles ____.
    Decrease, relax
  48. During exhalation, the chest cavity becomes ___ and ____ the lungs.
    smaller, compresses
  49. During exhalation, the _____ recoil and further compresses the ___.
    elastic lungs, alveoli
  50. During exhalation, ____ increases, and air is forced ___ of the lungs.
    intrapulmonic pressure, out
  51. Normal exhalation is (active/passive)
    passive
  52. What happens during forced exhalation?
    • contraction of the internal intercostal muscle pulls the ribs down and in
    • contraction of the abdominal muscles forces the diaphragm upward
  53. What percent of inhaled air is 02? How about CO2?
    21% O2, 0.04% CO2
  54. What percent of exhaled air is O2? How about CO2?
    16% O2 and 4.5% CO2
  55. External Respiration
    exchange of gases between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries
  56. Internal Respiration
    exchange of gases between blood in the system capillaries and tissue fluid
  57. Where is oxygen carried?
    Oxygen is carried by the iron of hemoglobin in the RBCs
  58. What contains the inspiration and expiration center?
    Medulla

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