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the struggle of individuals within a community who must negotiate the governing of who gets what, when, where, and how. It encompasses governmental institutions and social practices
- written by james madison
- drafted after virginia model
- congress, executive, judicial, states, amendments, supreme law, ratification
a government in which a scheme of representation takes place (constitution)
counting and assessment of citizens preferences
government by the people / soverign power resides in the people as whole and exercised directly by them or by elected officers / all have equal rights (mob)
reasoned discussion b/w all citizens resulting in an aggrement based on citizenship
explicity directed by represented do the wishes of their constitutency
rep have interpretive indiscretion / good deal of automony
human use of symbols, both language and non language within a context to influence or persuade others
why is rhetoric bad?
- no action or substance
- plays on emotions
elements of rhetoric?
- use of symbols
- human enterprise
- persuasion influence
- audience centered
what are signs?
combination of signifier and signified
cause / association (smoke and fire)
agreement or convention (stop sign)
"the art of using language to help people narrow their choices among specifiable if no specified policy options"
hart and daughton
- the theory or scienve of the method or grounds of knowledge
- world is constructed through interactions between people
a notion of applying some sort of knowledge to some sort of text
a critics single most important tool?
clear, concise question
how is democracy and citizenship political?
activity that has the intent or affect of influencing government action directly or indirectly
voting age population
voting eligible population
connections among individuals - social networks and norm of repiprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them
exclusive / limited membership / members benefits come first
outward focused / open membership / good society comes first
citizens have right to be informed / diversity of opinion is good for democracy
how are ways you can transfer info?
- 1 to 1
- many to 1
- 1 to many (mass media)
- many to many
ability to attain intended purpose
have powerful pull and direct effect
influences certain people who go out and effect others INDIRECTLY