Biology Chapter 6

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Biology Chapter 6
2013-03-14 12:43:24
Key Terms Processes

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  1. Autotroph
    Organism that makes its own food using carbon from inorganic molecules such as COand energy from the environment
  2. Heterotroph
    Organism that obtains energy and carbon from organic compounds assembled by other organisms
  3. Photosynthesis
    Metabolic pathway by which most autotrophs capture light energy and use it to make sugars from CO2 and water
  4. Chemoautotroph
    Organism that makes its own food using carbon from inorganic sources such as carbon dioxide, and energy from chemical reactions
  5. Photoautotroph
    Photosynthetic autotroph
  6. Chlorophyll a
    Main photosynthetic pigment in plants
  7. Pigment
    An organic molecule that can absorb light of certain wavelengths
  8. Wavelength
    Distance between the crests of two successive waves
  9. Chloroplasts
    Organelle specialized for photosynthesis in plants and some protists
  10. Light-dependent reactions
    First stage of photosynthesis; convert light energy to chemical energy of ATP and NADPH
  11. Light-independent reactions
    Second stage of photosynthesis; use ATP and NADPH to assemble sugars from water and CO2
  12. Stroma
    Semifluid matrix between the thylakoid membrane and the two outer membranes of a chloroplast
  13. Thylakoid Membrane
    A chloroplast's highly folded membrane system; forms a continuous compartment in the stroma
  14. Electron transfer phosphorylation
    Process in which electron flow through electron transfer chains sets up a hydrogen ion gradient that drives ATP formation; also called chemiosmosis
  15. Photolysis
    Process by which light energy breaks down a molecule
  16. Photosystem
    Cluster of pigments and proteins that converts light energy to chemical energy in photosynthesis
  17. Calvin-Benson Cycle
    Light-independent reactions of photosynthesis; cyclic carbon-fixing pathway that forms sugars from CO2
  18. Carbon Fixation
    Process by which carbon from an inorganic source such as carbon dioxide gets incorporated into an organic molecule
  19. Rubisco
    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase - carbon fixing enzyme of the Calvin-Benson cycle
  20. C3 plant
    Type of plant that uses only the Calvin-Benson cycle to fix carbon
  21. C4 plant
    Type of plant that minimizes photorespiration by fixing carbon twice, in two cell types
  22. CAM plant
    Type of C4 plant that conserves water by fixing carbon twice, at different times of day
  23. Photorespiration
    Reaction in which rubisco attaches oxygen instead of carbon dioxide to ribulose bisphosphate
  24. Stomata
    Gaps that open on plant surfaces; allow water vapor and gases to diffuse across the epidermis