Pathology II Exam 2

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Pathology II Exam 2
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Pathology II Exam 2
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  1. inflammation of the mouth
    stomatitis
  2. causes may be pathogenic organisms, mechanical trauma, irritants ie. alcohol, tobacco, hot foods
    stomatitis
  3. inflammation of the tongue
    glossitis
  4. often associated with stomatitis
    glossitis
  5. inflammation of the gingiva or gums
    gingivitis
  6. usually caused by the long term effects of plaque buildup on the surface of the teeth
    gingivitis
  7. may be associated with generalized stomatitis
    gingivitis
  8. can occur with deficiency diseases such as scurvy or metallic poisoning
    gingivitis
  9. inflammation of the lips
    cheilitis
  10. the fungus that causes thrush
    Candida albicans

    common organisms that cause inflammation of the oral cavity
  11. the virus that causes cold sores or fever blisters
    Herpes simplex I

    common organisms that cause inflammation of the oral cavity
  12. the bacterium that causes syphilis
    Treponema pallidum

    common organisms that cause inflammation of the oral cavity
  13. inflammation of the throat/pharynx
    pharyngitis
  14. may be a primary infection such as strep throat or diptheria
    pharyngitis
  15. may be a complication of other infections such as rhinitis, sinusitis or influenza
    pharyngitis
  16. inflammation of the esophagus
    esophagitis
  17. often caused by regurgitation of stomach acid through the cardiac sphincter
    esophagitis
  18. stenosis or stricture of the esophagus is a common condition
    esophagitis
  19. inflammation of the stomach
    gastritis
  20. may result from pernicious anemia, bacterial or viral infection, excessive indulgence in alcoholic beverages, dietary indiscretions or too much aspirin
    gastritis
  21. ulcers that occur in the mucous membranes of the stomach or duodenum
    peptic ulcer
  22. caused by hyperacidity of the gastric juices
    peptic ulcer
  23. the hyperacidity in peptic ulcers is caused by the presence of the bacterium ____________ _________
    Helicobacter pylori
  24. a complication of peptic ulcers
    perforation
  25. _______ refers to an ulcer that eats through the stomach wall and allows the contents to reach the abdominal cavity causing a severe infection known as ________
    1. perforation

    2. peritonitis
  26. complication of peptic ulcers that occurs in the area of the pyloric valve
    pyloric stenosis
  27. refers to stenosis of the valve between the stomach and small intestine
    pyloric stenosis
  28. caused by the formation of scar tissue from chronic ulcers
    pyloric stenosis
  29. inflammation of the small intestines
    enteritis
  30. caused by a number of organisms some of which are normal flora
    enteritis
  31. the organisms that cause enteritis are often obtained from
    contaminated food or water
  32. abdominal pain, cramping, diarrhea, fever and dehydration
    symptoms of enteritis
  33. an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease that may lead to blockage of the intestine by swelling and scar tissue formation
    crohn's disease
  34. a condition in which a segment of intestines protrude through the abdominal wall
    hernia
  35. the major concern with hernias is that the intestine may become obstructed blocking the passage of its contents
    hernia
  36. the blood supply could be pinched off resulting in necrosis
    hernia
  37. a hernia in which a segment of small intestine protrudes through the inguinal ring
    inguinal hernia
  38. this loop may protrude down into the scrotum of the male or the labia majora of the female
    inguinal hernia
  39. a hernia in which a segment of small intestine protrudes through the femoral ring
    femoral hernia
  40. this loop may protrude into the soft tissues adjacent to the femoral vessels in the area of the groin
    femoral hernia
  41. hernia most commonly seen in women
    femoral hernia
  42. a hernia at the navel in which a segment of small intestine of an infant protrudes through an imperfect closure of the umbilicus following birth
    umbilical hernia
  43. a hernia in which a segment of an organ protrudes through one of the orifices of the diaphragm
    diaphragmatic hernia
  44. a hernia in which a portion of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm
    hiatal hernia
  45. inflammation of the mucous membranes of the colon
    colitis
  46. the most frequently seen gastrointestinal disease
    colitis
  47. the most common causes seem to be stress and certain foods and beverages
    colitis
  48. an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease that causes ulcers in the lining of the lower colon and rectum
    ulcerative colitis
  49. causes diarrhea, the ulcers bleed and produce pus
    ulcerative colitis
  50. 25 to 40% of patients must eventually have their colons removed because of massive bleeding, severe illness, rupture of the colon or risk of cancer
    ulcerative colitis
  51. the condition of having a sac or pouch-like structure in the wall of the large intestine
    diverticulosis
  52. a sac or pouch-like structure in the wall of the large intestine
    diverticula
  53. inflammation of the diverticula
    diverticulitis
  54. occurs when the diverticula become impacted with fecal material and bacteria
    diverticulitis
  55. symptoms include chronic constipation, mucus in the stool and severe abdominal pain
    diverticulitis
  56. a decrease in peristalsis in a section of the large intestine caused by a lack of nerve or blood supply
    paralysis
  57. a twisting of a loop of intestine
    volvulus
  58. a slipping or telescoping of one segment of intestine into another
    intussusception
  59. scar tissue formed on loops of the bowel adhere the loops together preventing the normal process of peristalsis
    adhesions
  60. inflammation of the rectum and anus
    proctitis
  61. varicose veins of the rectum or anus
    hemorrhoids
  62. piles
    hemorrhoids
  63. determined by how close they are to the anorectal line
    internal and/or external piles
  64. inflammation of the appendix
    appendicitis
  65. if untreated, an inflamed _________ may burst and cause peritonitis
    appendix
  66. very common benign tumor-like growths
    polyps
  67. a degenerative condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation or distribution of visible fat in the cells
    fatty degeneration/fatty change
  68. triglycerides that are the result of the digestion of fats
    fatty degeneration/fatty change
  69. the process of seepage or diffusion into a tissue of substances not ordinarily present
    infiltration
  70. the circulatory system is the vehicle
    infiltration
  71. the abnormal deposition of fat within cells
    fatty infiltration
  72. fat has been brought by the blood
    fatty infiltration
  73. must have fatty infiltration to get fatty degeneration
    fatty infiltration
  74. inflammation of the liver
    hepatitis
  75. caused by exposure to certain poisons, i.e. drugs
    toxic hepatitis
  76. two types of hepatitis
    • 1. toxic
    • 2. viral
  77. Viral Hepatitis agents
    • Hepatitis A
    • Hepatitis B
    • Hepatitis C
  78. Infectious hepatitis
    Hepatitis A
  79. spread directly from person to person by the fecal oral route

    usually due to poor sanitation methods
    Hepatitis A
  80. not as serious as other forms
    Hepatitis A
  81. serum hepatitis
    Hepatitis B
  82. transmitted through contaminated body fluids
    Hepatitis B
  83. represents an occupational hazard to people who work with blood and blood products
    Hepatitis B
  84. more serious than hepatitis A
    Hepatitis B
  85. may result in chronic hepatitis and permanent liver damage
    Hepatitis B
  86. Non-A, Non-B hepatitis
    Hepatitis C
  87. transmitted through contaminated body fluids
    Hepatitis C
  88. more serious than Hep A and Hep B because there is not yet a vaccine available
    Hepatitis C
  89. a yellowish staining of the integuments, deeper tissues and the excretions with bile pigments
    jaundice
  90. a symptom of liver disruptions
    jaundice
  91. causes a yellowness of the skin, whites of the eyes, mucous membranes, and body fluids due to the presence in the blood of the bile pigment bilirubin
    jaundice
  92. degenerative changes in liver parenchyma cells (the workers of the liver) with the formation of dense connective tissue, fatty infiltration, and scarring
    cirrhosis
  93. results in the loss of functioning liver cells and an increased resistance to the flow of blood through the liver
    cirrhosis
  94. seen in the end stage of chronic liver disease
    cirrhosis
  95. can be caused by chronic alcoholism and damage by other toxins or drugs, or previous infections
    cirrhosis
  96. postmortem conditions of cirrhosis
    • a. jaundice
    • b. ascites
    • c. edema
    • d. hemorrhage
  97. postmortem hemorrhaging is from a ruptured esophageal pharynx

    occurs because of blockage of the portal vein
    cirrhosis
  98. blockage of the portal vein could also lead to ammonia toxicity in the body
    cirrhosis
  99. inflammation of the gallbladder (bile sac)

    may be acute or chronic
    cholecystitis
  100. acute form is usually a result of the irritation caused by gallstones
    cholecystitis
  101. chronic form is important in the production of gallstones
    cholecystitis
  102. the formation or presence of calculi or bilestones in the gallbladder or common duct
    cholelithiasis
  103. most commonly composed of cholesterol, but mixed stones are common as well
    cholelithiasis
  104. stones may block the passageway for bile and cause a backup leading to cholecystitis
    cholelithiasis
  105. inflammation of the bile ducts
    cholangitis
  106. caused by the obstruction of a duct by gallstones infected with bacteria
    cholangitis
  107. inflammation of the pancreas
    pancreatitis
  108. acute form is characterized by necrosis, suppuration, gangrene, and hemorrhage
    pancreatitis
  109. chronic form leads to the formation of scar tissue associated with malfunction
    pancreatitis
  110. usually a consequence of alcoholism (chronic) or gallstone blockage (acute)
    pancreatitis
  111. inflammation of the membrane that lines the wall of the abdomen and covers the abdominal organs
    peritonitis
  112. usually due to a bacterial infection caused by perforation of an ulcer or intestine
    peritonitis
  113. Postmortem conditions of digestive system disorders (11)
    • 1. ascites
    • 2. dehydration
    • 3. rapid decomposition
    • 4. febrile lesions
    • 5. emaciations
    • 6. rapid coagulation of blood
    • 7. jaundice
    • 8. edema
    • 9. hemorrhage
    • 10. purge
    • 11. abdominal distention
  114. inflammation of the nasal mucosa
    rhinitis
  115. part of having a cold
    rhinitis
  116. inflammation of the pharynx
    pharyngitis
  117. commonly called the throat
    pharynx
  118. inflammation of the sinuses
    sinusitis
  119. due to a variety of allergic, viral and bacterial causes
    sinusitis
  120. inflammation of the larynx
    laryngitis
  121. commonly called the voice box
    larynx
  122. an acute viral infection of the upper respiratory tract
    coryza
  123. commonly known as the common cold
    coryza
  124. coryza characterized by (5)
    • 1. nasal congestion
    • 2. runny nose
    • 3. runny eyes
    • 4. mild sore throat
    • 5. headache
  125. a common upper respiratory viral infection
    influenza
  126. usually called the flu
    influenza
  127. influenza characterized by (7)
    • 1. fever
    • 2. chills
    • 3. sore throat
    • 4. possible vomiting
    • 5. headache
    • 6. cough
    • 7. muscle pain
  128. a form of allergy as a result of hypersensitivity to various grass and tree pollens
    hay fever
  129. a common upper respiratory problem characterized by watery and itchy eyes, a runny nose, and sneezing and coughing
    hay fever
  130. inflammatory growths with a stem or a pedicle
    nasal polyps
  131. the most common tumor-like growth to the nose
    nasal polyps
  132. inflammation of the trachea
    tracheitis
  133. known as the windpipe
    trachea
  134. inflammation of the bronchi
    bronchitis
  135. characterized by fever, chest pain, difficulty breathing and a chronic cough
    bronchitis
  136. caused by the person trying to clear excess mucous from the linings of the respiratory passageways
    bronchitis
  137. inflammation of the smaller bronchi and bronchioles
    bronchiolitis
  138. an allergic response characterized by a hypersecretion of mucous and spasms of the bronchial muscles
    bronchial asthma
  139. inflammation of the lungs due to infection with bacteria, viruses or other pathogenic organisms
    pneumonia
  140. causes the buildup of inflammatory exudates in the alveoli
    pneumonia
  141. the lungs are inflamed due to agents that are not infectious
    pneumonitis
  142. inflammation localized in one or two lobes of the lung
    lobar pneumonia
  143. thick, fibrinous exudate making the exchange of respiratory gasses impossible
    lobar pneumonia
  144. streptococcus pneumoniae causes the majority of the cases
    lobar pneumonia
  145. responds well to antibiotic treatment and therefore is usually an acute disease
    lobar pneumonia
  146. inflammation of the bronchi and terminal bronchioles that can spread into the lungs
    • bronchial pneumonia
    • bronchopneumonia
  147. scattered throughout the bronchi and lungs as spotty patches
    • bronchial pneumonia
    • bronchopneumonia
  148. most commonly a secondary disease
    • bronchial pneumonia
    • bronchopneumonia
  149. seen as a complication of:
    1. whooping cough
    2. measles
    3. influenza
    4. chronic bronchitis
    5. cancer
    6. AIDs
    • bronchial pneumonia
    • bronchopneumonia
  150. a common nosocomial infection
    • bronchial pneumonia
    • bronchopneumonia
  151. caused by a variety of viruses
    viral pneumonia
  152. inflammation of the membranes surrounding the lungs
    pleuritis
  153. also known as pleurisy
    pleuritis
  154. often accompanies lobar pneumonia
    pleuritis
  155. fluid in the pleural cavity
    pleural effusion
  156. also known as hydrothorax
    pleural effusion
  157. accompanies circulatory disorders
    pleural effusion
  158. pus in the pleural cavity
    empyema
  159. also known as pyothorax
    empyema
  160. accompanies many infectious diseases
    empyema
  161. blood in the pleural cavity
    hemothorax
  162. may accompany wounds, infections, or tumors
    hemothorax
  163. air in the pleural cavity
    pneumothorax
  164. the result of a penetrating wound from outside the body or from the rupture of an alveoli in diseases like tuberculosis and emphysema
    pneumothorax
  165. deficient blood oxygen supply to tissues
    anoxia
  166. postmortem conditions of pneumonia
    • 1. rapid coagulation
    • 2. cyanosis (bluish color of mucous membranes resulting from lack of oxygen)
    • 3. dehydration
    • 4. edema
  167. organism that causes tuberculosis
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  168. lesion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • Tubercle
    • Ghon's lesion
  169. has a granulomatous characteristic with gross visible necrosis forming cheesy, crumbly, caseous mass
    caseation necrosis
  170. tubercle contents may become liquified and resemble pus but without all the cardinal signs of inflammation
    cold abscess
  171. tubercle may also erode the wall of a bronchus leaving an empty cavity
    process of cavitation
  172. sputum is grayish yellow or white
    • tuberculosis
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  173. tuberculosis involving the lungs

    most common form
    pulmonary
  174. generalized tuberculosis with minute tubercles in the affected part
    miliary
  175. most often affected organs of miliary tuberculosis are:
    • 1. brain
    • 2. kidneys
    • 3. intestines
    • 4. bones
    • 5. skin
  176. postmortem conditions of tuberculosis
    • 1. cavitation
    • 2. hemorrhage
    • 3. dehydration
    • 4. emaciation
    • 5. cold abscess
    • 6. caseation necrosis
  177. a fibrous inflammation of the lungs resulting from the inhalation of dust
    pneumoconiosis
  178. inhalation of carbon particles
    • anthracosis
    • pneumoconiosis
  179. hazard to coal miners
    • anthracosis
    • pneumoconiosis
  180. inhalation of silica (stone dust)
    • silicosis
    • pneumoconiosis
  181. hazard to miners and rock workers
    • silicosis
    • pneumoconiosis
  182. inhalation of asbestos dust
    • asbestosis
    • pneumoconiosis
  183. state of collapse of the lungs in which the air sacks are completely airless
    atelectasis
  184. collapse may be caused by a complete obstruction of a bronchus
    atelectasis
  185. collapse may be caused by an accumulation of fluid or air in the pleural cavity that presses against the lung
    atelectasis
  186. a chronic deterioration and destruction of lung tissue
    emphysema
  187. causes an incomplete or partial bronchial obstruction with the presence of excess mucous and tissue irritation
    emphysema
  188. characterized by the lungs being supercharged with air that is high in carbon dioxide content
    emphysema
  189. the difficulty is in moving air out because of the increased resistance to the flow of air in the lung
    emphysema
  190. the alveolar walls eventually break down and join the air sacs together into much larger, functionless sacs
    • bullae
    • emphysema
  191. these will also rupture eventually leaving the person with no way to exchange respiratory gases
    • bullae
    • emphysema
  192. a combination of two or more conditions in which the exchange of respiratory gases is ineffective
    • COPD
    • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  193. includes, but not limited to, emphysema, bronchial asthma, and chronic bronchitis
    • COPD
    • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  194. a disease of the pancreas that is characterized by chronic respiratory infections
    cystic fibrosis
  195. the infections are caused by the presence of a thick, sticky mucous that is secreted from the respiratory epithelium
    cystic fibrosis
  196. the mucous catches bacteria that would normally not be a problem
    cystic fibrosis
  197. most of the deaths from this disease are attributed to the obstruction of air flow to the lungs by the mucous
    cystic fibrosis
  198. the number one cause of death of male cancer patients
    carcinoma of the lung
  199. 25 to 40% of patients must have their colons removed due to
    Ulcerative colitis
  200. A common viral infection affecting the upper respiratory tract that is characterized by fever, chills, sore throat, runny nose, cough and muscle pain is
    • influenza
    • flu
  201. A decrease in peristalsis in a section of the large intestine due to lack of nerve or blood supply is
    paralysis
  202. A disease of the lungs that forms a gross visible necrosis with a granulomatous appearance that will turn into a cheesy, crumbly mass is
    tuberculosis
  203. A fibrous inflammation of the lungs due to the inhalation of some kind of dust is
    pneumoconiosis
  204. A hernia in which a portion of the stomach protrudes through an opening of the diaphragm is
    hiatal hernia
  205. A hernia in which a segment of the small intestine protrudes through one of the orifices of the diaphragm is
    diaphragmatic hernia
  206. A loop of intestine protruding into the scrotum or labia majora is
    inguinal hernia
  207. A loss of functioning liver cells and increased resistance to the flow of blood through the liver seen in the end of chronic liver disease may be due to
    cirrhosis
  208. A ruptured appendix may lead to
    peritonitis
  209. A segment of intestine protruding through the abdominal wall is
    hernia
  210. A telescoping of one section of intestine into another is
    intussusception
  211. A type of inflammation of the liver that can be caused by exposure to an excessive amount
    of some poisons such as acetaminophen is
    toxic hepatitis
  212. A type of inflammation of the lungs in which only one or two of the lobes are affected is
    lobar pneumonia
  213. A viral inflammation of the liver that is usually acquired through exposure to blood products is (2 responses)
    • Hepatitis B
    • Hepatitis C
  214. Air in the pleural cavity is
    pneumothorax
  215. An accumulation of fluid or air in the pleural cavity pressing against a lung may cause what?
    atelectasis
  216. An acute, viral infection of the upper respiratory tract characterized by nasal congestion, mild sore throat, headache and runny nose is
    coryza
  217. An allergic response by the respiratory system that is characterized by a hypersecretion of mucous and spasms of the bronchial muscles is a condition known as
    bronchial asthma
  218. An idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease that causes ulcers in the lining of the lower colon and rectum is
    ulcerative colitis
  219. An idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease that may lead to blockage of the intestine by swelling and scar tissue formation is
    crohn's disease
  220. Blood in the pleural cavity is
    hemothorax
  221. Bronchopneumonia is often a complication of what diseases?
    • 1. whooping cough
    • 2. measles
    • 3. influenza
    • 4. chronic bronchitis
    • 5. cancer
    • 6. AIDs
  222. Candida albicans causes
    thrush

  223. Deficient blood oxygen supply to the tissues is

    Compare lobar pneumonia to bronchopneumonia.
    anoxia
  224. Degenerative changes in the parenchyma cells of the liver with the formation of dense connective tissue, fatty infiltration and scarring is

    cirrhosis
  225. Esophagitis is often caused by what?
    regurgitation of stomach acid through the cardiac sphincter
  226. Fluid in the pleural cavity is (3 responses)
    • pleural effusion
    • hydrothorax
    • ?
  227. Generalized tuberculosis with minute tubercles in the affected part is
    miliary tuberculosis
  228. Helicobacter pylori causes
    peptic ulcer
  229. Hepatitis A is also known as
    infectious hepatitis
  230. Hepatitis A is spread via
    fecal-oral route
  231. Hepatitis B is also known as
    serum hepatitis
  232. Hepatitis B is spread via
    contaminated blood products/body fluids
  233. Hepatitis C is also known as
    non-A, non-B hepatitis
  234. Hepatitis C is spread via
    contaminated blood products/body fluids
  235. In what disease is there the buildup of inflammatory exudates in the alveoli?
    pneumonia
  236. Inflammation of an abnormal sac or pouch in the intestinal wall of the colon is
    diverticulitis
  237. Inflammation of the appendix is
    appendicits
  238. Inflammation of the bile ducts is
    cholangitis
  239. Inflammation of the bronchi is
    bronchitis
  240. Inflammation of the bronchioles is
    bronchiolitis
  241. Inflammation of the esophagus is
    esophagitis
  242. Inflammation of the gall bladder is
    cholecystitis
  243. Inflammation of the gums is
    gingivitis
  244. Inflammation of the intestines is
    enteritis
  245. Inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity is
    peritonitis
  246. Inflammation of the lips is
    cheilitis
  247. Inflammation of the liver is
    hepatitis
  248. Inflammation of the lungs due to exposure to agents other than infectious one is
    pneumonitis
  249. Inflammation of the lungs due to infection with bacteria, viruses, or other pathogenic organisms is
    pneumonia
  250. Inflammation of the membranes around the lungs is (2 responses)
    • pleuritis
    • pleurisy
  251. Inflammation of the mouth is
    stomatitis
  252. Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon is
    colitis
  253. Inflammation of the nasal mucosa is
    rhinitis
  254. Inflammation of the pancreas is
    pancreatitis
  255. Inflammation of the rectum and/or anus is
    proctitis
  256. Inflammation of the sinuses is
    sinusitis
  257. Inflammation of the stomach is
    gastritis
  258. Inflammation of the terminal bronchi and bronchioles that spreads throughout the lungs in spotty patches is
    • bronchial pneumonia
    • bronchiopneumonia
  259. Inflammation of the throat is
    pharyngitis
  260. Inflammation of the tongue is
    glossitis
  261. Inflammation of the voice box is
    laryngitis
  262. Inflammation of the windpipe is
    tracheitis
  263. Perforation of a stomach ulcer could lead to
    peritonitis
  264. Pernicious anemia could lead to what digestive system disorder?
    gastritis
  265. Pus in the pleural cavity is (2 responses)
    • empyema
    • pyothorax
  266. Regurgitation of stomach acid through the cardiac sphincter could cause what?
    esophagitis
  267. Scar tissue that connects loops of the bowel together preventing normal peristalsis are
    adhesions
  268. Scurvy or metallic poisoning may lead to
    gingivitis
  269. The bacterium that causes syphilis is
    Treponema pallidum
  270. The breakdown of the alveolar walls that occurs in emphysema causes the formation of large, functionless sacs called
    bullae
  271. The condition of having sacs or pouch-like structures in the walls of the large intestine is
    diverticulosis
  272. The formation of calculi in the gallbladder is
    cholelithiasis

  273. The infections of what disease are caused by the presence of a thick, sticky mucous?

    The formation of calculi in the gallbtadder is
    cystic fibrosis
  274. The inhalation of carbon particles may inflame the lungs causing the condition of
    anthracosis
  275. The lesion for tuberculosis is (2 responses)
    • tubercle
    • Ghon's lesion
  276. The most frequently diagnosed gastrointestinal disease is
    colitis
  277. The number one cause of death of male cancer patients is due to what disease?
    carcinoma of the lung
  278. The stenosis of the valve between the stomach and small intestine due to chronic peptic ulcers
    is the condition of
    pyloric stenosis
  279. Too much aspirin, excessive indulgence in alcoholic beverages or dietary indiscretions may lead to
    gastritis
  280. Twisting of a loop of intestine is called
    volvulus
  281. Ulcers that occur in the mucous membranes of the stomach or duodenum are
    peptic ulcers
  282. Varicose veins of the rectum or anus are called (2 responses)
    • hemorrhoids
    • piles
  283. What are the likely causes of pancreatitis?
    • alcoholism (chronic)
    • gallstone blockage (acute)
  284. What are the post-mortem conditions of cirrhosis?
    • 1. jaundice
    • 2. ascities
    • 3. edema
    • 4. hemorrhage
  285. What are the post-mortem conditions of digestive system disorders?
    • 1. ascites
    • 2. dehydration
    • 3. rapid decomposition
    • 4. febrile lesions
    • 5. emaciations
    • 6. rapid coagulation of blood
    • 7. jaundice
    • 8. edema
    • 9. hemorrhage
    • 10. purge
    • 11. abdominal distention
  286. What are the postmortem conditions of pneumonia?
    • 1. rapid coagulation of blood
    • 2. cyanosis
    • 3. dehydration
    • 4. edema
  287. What are the postmortem conditions of tuberculosis?
    • 1. cavitation
    • 2. hemorrhage
    • 3. dehydration
    • 4. emaciation
    • 5. cold abscess
    • 6. caseation necrosis
  288. What are the two complications of peptic ulcers that we discussed?
    • perforation
    • peritonitis
  289. What causes cold sores and fever blisters?
    herpes simplex I
  290. What causes peptic ulcers?
    hyperacidity of the gastric juices
  291. What condition involves a difficulty in moving air out of the lungs?
    emphysema
  292. What condition is characterized by fever, chest pain, difficulty breathing and a chronic cough caused by an effort to clear excess mucous from the respiratory linings?
    bronchitis
  293. What condition will lead to a breakdown of the walls of the alveoli in the lungs leading to the formation of larger, functionless sacs?
    emphysema
  294. What constitutes COPD?
    a combination of two or more conditions in which the exchange of respiratory gases is ineffective
  295. What disease leads to death because of the obstruction of airflow by a thick, sticky mucous?
    cystic fibrosis
  296. What does Streptococcus pneumoniae cause?
    lobar pneumonia
  297. What form of hepatitis is considered the most dangerous at this time because there is no vaccine available to protect the public?
    • hepatitis C
    • non-A, non-B
  298. What is a common upper respiratory condition characterized by watery and itchy eyes, runny nose, sneezing and coughing?
    hay fever
  299. What is particularly hazardous to coal miners?
    anthracosis
  300. What is particularly hazardous to miners and rock workers?
    • silica (stone dust)
    • silicosis
  301. What is the causative agent of tuberculosis?
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  302. What is the cause of the characteristics of bronchitis?

    What is the causative agent of tuberculosis?
    the person trying to clear excess mucous from the linings of the respiratory passageways
  303. What is the most common tumor-like growth to the nose?
    nasal polyps
  304. What is the result of a penetrating wound from outside the body or from the rupturing of
    alveoli?
    pneumothorax
  305. What is the technical name for the common cold?
    coryza
  306. What is unique about the sputum in the case of tuberculosis?
    • grayish yellow
    • white
  307. What leaves the lungs supercharged with carbon dioxide?
    emphysema
  308. What makes up most bile stones?
    cholesterol
  309. What may cause acute cholecystitis?
    irritation caused by gallstones
  310. What may cause chronic cholecystitis?
    production of gallstones
  311. What often accompanies lobar pneumonia?
    • pleuritis
    • pleurisy
  312. What organs are most often affected by miliary tuberculosis?
    • 1. brain
    • 2. kidneys
    • 3. intestines
    • 4. bones
    • 5. skin
  313. What two diseases did we discuss that chronic alcoholism may lead to?
    • cirrhosis
    • gastritis
    • pancreatits
  314. What type of pneumonia is most commonly a secondary disease?
    • bronchial pneumonia
    • bronchopneumonia
  315. What type of pneumonia is often a nosocomial infection?
    • bronchial pneumonia
    • bronchopneumonia
  316. When a tubercle erodes through the wall of a bronchus and discharges it's material into the air passageway forming an empty cavity, what has occurred?
    process of cavitation
  317. When the contents of a tubercle soften and liquefy to resemble pus, but without all the classic signs of inflammation, what has formed?
    cold abscess

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