diuretic drug catagory.txt
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"acetazolamide (Diamox) is contraindicated in patients who have shown a hypersensitivity to it as well as in those with significant liver or kidney dysfunction, low serum potassium or sodium levels, acidosis, or adrenal gland failure. Acetazolamide is available in both oral and parenteral forms. Pregnancy category C."
"potassium-sparing diuretics, also referred to as aldosterone-inhibiting diuretics because they block the aldosterone receptors. In fact, spironolactone is a competitive antagonist of aldosterone and for this reason causes sodium and water to be excreted and potassium to be retained.
"Furosemide (Lasix) is a loop diuretic. It is used in the management of pulmonary edema and the edema associated with heart failure, liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, and ascites. It has also been used in the treatment of hypertension, usually that caused by heart failure. contraindicated in patients who have shown a hypersensitivity to it or the sulfonamides"
"Hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL) is a thiazide diuretic, is a very commonly prescribed and inexpensive thiazide diuretic. It is used in combination with many other drugs, including methyldopa, propranolol, spironolactone, triamterene, hydralazine, ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, and labetalol. Dosages exceeding 50 mg/day rarely produce additional clinical results and may only increase drug toxicity. This property is known as a ceiling effect."
"Mannitol (Osmitrol) is a osmotic diuretic. Its use is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to it as well as in those with anuria, severe dehydration, pulmonary congestion, or cerebral hemorrhage. Treatment should be terminated if severe cardiac or renal impairment develops after the initiation of therapy. It is available only in parenteral form as 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% solutions for intravenous injection. Mannitol may crystallize when exposed to low temperatures. This is more likely to occur when concentrations exceed 15%. Because of this, mannitol should always be administered intravenously through a filter, and vials of the drug are often stored in a warmer in the pharmacy. Before administering mannitol, the nurse should visually inspect the mannitol container for precipitants. Pregnancy category C."
Metolazone (Zaroxolyn) is a thiazide-like diuretic that appears to be more potent than the thiazide diuretics. This greater potency is most visible in patients with renal dysfunction. One striking advantage of metolazone is that it remains effective to a creatinine clearance as low as 10 mL/min. It may also be given in combination with loop diuretics to produce potent diuresis in patients with severe symptoms of heart failure.
"a synthetic steroid that blocks aldosterone receptors. It is used in high dosages for the treatment of ascites, a condition commonly associated with cirrhosis of the liver. The serum potassium level should be monitored frequently in patients who have impaired renal function or who are currently taking potassium supplements, because hyperkalemia is a common complication of spironolactone therapy."
"The pharmacologic properties of triamterene (Dyrenium) are similar to those of amiloride. Like amiloride, triamterene acts directly on the distal renal tubule of the nephron to depress the resorption of sodium and the excretion of potassium and hydrogen, processes otherwise stimulated at that site by aldosterone. It has little or no antihypertensive effect. "
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