AP WORLD; Deardorf's key concepts
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AP WORLD; Deardorf's key concepts
Key Concepts AP world everything posted terms from text book
Key concepts 1.1-6.3 and key terms
dates/theme of the AP time period key concept “Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth”
Prehistory to 600BCE
Tech and environmental transformations
famous age/period early human migrations took place?
Early migrations began in
anthropologists believe what about social structures of early hunter-foragers?
They were egalitarian (belief in equality of all people)
“technologies” early humans develop/how they used these technologies?
: Food, protection
Primal hunting tools
Why early humans develop different tools in different regions?
They made what they needed and traded for what they couldn't
What do we know about economic structures of early hunter-forager bands?
They were not self sufficient and traded people, ideas and goods
dates/theme of the AP time period key concept “The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies”?
Prehistory to 600BCE
Tech and environmental transformations
major historical turning point occurred about 10,000 years ago?
End of the last Ice Age and some people started to settle and get into agriculture
How/why the switch to agriculture impacted the environment?
Extreme selection/exclusion of specific plants, irrigation and domestic animals.
How social structures changed with switch to agriculture?
Patriarchy and specialization of labor.
What is pastoralism/where it first emerged?
Africa and Eurasia
People with domesticated animals who led herds around grazing ranges
Defining characteristics of the pastoralist way of life?
More socially stratified than hunter/foragers
Mobile, few material possesions
How pastoralists affect people in settled agricultural communities?
They became a natural connection between settled populations and brought over new tech
seven major regions associated with the emergence of agriculture?
Nile River Valley/Sub-Suharan Africa
Indus River Valley
Yellow (Huang He) River Valley
Papua New Guinea
Why did people in agricultural communities have to work cooperatively with one another?
To clear land and control the water for crops
The emergence of agriculture impacted the environment by
Less diversity from selective farmers
Pastorialism affected the environment by
Pastorialism and agriculture affected the food supply because of
More reliable and abundant
How/why were the early human populations affected by pastorialism adn agriculture?
They increased due to the food supply
How did agriculture affect human labor systems before 600 BCE?
Specialization of labor
: Warriors, artisans, elites
How specialization of labor impacted technology before 600 BCE?
Improved agricultural production, trade, transport.
Important technological innovations that emerged from specialization of labor such include
Woven textiles (clothes)
Important characteristics of the elite groups that emerged with the switch pastoralism and agriculture
More hierarchical social structures
When did the first societies develop that laid the foundations for civilization?
5000 years urban societies developed
The term ‘civilization’ used to designates
Large societies with cites and powerful states.
Important features all civilizations share?
Specialization of labor
In regards to labor systems, what do agricultural surpluses permit?
Significant specialization of labor
Name the “core & foundational civilizations” where agriculture flourished.
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa
Defining characteristics of a “state”?
Systems of rule
Surplus labor and resources
Typical defining characteristics of early states leaders?
Believed to be divine
Supported by military
What are the Hittites known for?
Access to iron and other resources
What does it mean to be a “favorably situated” state?
Having greater access to resources
What was a common trend in early states with food surplus and growing populations?
Expansion and conquering
Which 3 regions experienced the first empire building?
How did pastoralists transform civilizations?
Developed/spread new weapons (bows, iron weapons) and new modes of transportation (chariots, horseback)
How culture helped to unify states?
helped unify through language, lit., religion, myth, monumental art
Examples of monumental architecture and urban planning in early civilizations?
Ziggurats, pyramids, temples, defensive walls, streets/roads, sewage/water systems
Who promoted the arts and artisanship in early civilizations?
Systems of record keeping arose _____________ in all early civilizations. Some examples of these are:
Cuneiform, Hieroglyphs, Pictographs, Alphabets, Quipu
Example of an early legal code?
Code of Hammurabi
Religious beliefs developed during period of early/core civilizations?
How trade changed during prehistory to 600BCE?
Expanded: Local to regional to transregional
Examples of civilizations that exchanged goods,ideas and tech during early civilizations (prehistory-600BCE)
Egypt and Nubia
Mesopotamis and Indus Valley
How did the social systems change during the period of early civilizations (prehistory-600BCE)
Social/gender hierarchies intensified/expanded
Examples of literature from the period of early civilizations (prehistory-600BCE)
Epics of Gilgamesh
Book of the dead
Dates/theme of the AP time period key concept “The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions”?
Organization and reorganization
The codification of the ________ scriptures further associated Judaism with monotheism.
The Hebrew scriptures influenced the cultural/legal traditions of what area?
Trend influenced the Jewish diasporic communities in the Middle East?
Which peoples were involved?
Conquering of the Jews by Assyrian, Babylonian, Roman empires
Sanskrit scriptures formed the basis of the __________ religions, which later became known as __________.
Core Buddhist beliefs/scritpures?
Desire, suffering and search for enlightenment
Buddhism was, in part, a reaction to ____________.
Emperor _______________ of _____________ supported the spread of Buddhism. Buddhism was also spread through ___________________________.
Ashoka of Maurya, missionaries and merchants
The philosophical belief system of ___________ came out of China.
Confucianism’s main goal was:
Social harmony through proper rituals and social relationships.
Core beliefs of Daoism?
Balance between humans and nature
Role Daoism played in developing Chinese culture:
Influence through medical theories/practices, pottery, metallurgy and architecture
Christianity drew on which religious
Initially, Christianity rejected _______________ influences.
Roman and Hellenistic
Christianity initially spread through ____________, and later through the support of ____________________. (600BCE-600CE)
Core ideas of Greco-Roman philosophy/science?
nature of political power/hierarchy
Role did belief systems played in social systems? (600BCE-600CE)
Affected gender roles
What belief systems continued alongside other belief systems and how did they survive outside core civilizations?
Shamanism and animism, Ancestor veneration
Thanks to their daily reliance on the natural world
What art forms were influenced by belief systems? Examples? (600BCE-600CE)
Literature and drama (Greek plays, Indian epics), distinct architectural styles
The number and size of key states and empires grew dramatically by:(600BCE-600CE)
Imposing political unity on previously competing states
What are the 6 key states/empires and their locations?(600BCE-600CE)
: Persian Empires
: Quin and Han Empires
: Maurya and Gupta Empires
: Phoenicia, Greece, Heelenistic/Roman States
: Teotihuacan, Maya
Andean S America
What rulers of empires create to organize their subjects? (600BCE-600CE)
New techniques of imperial admin. based on earlier political forms
Two important elements of imperial administrations are:
Elaborate legal systems and bureaucracies
What regions hosted the most famous administrative institutions?
Name 4 ways in which imperial governments projected military power over large areas.
Developing supply lines
Building fortification/defensive walls and roads
Drawing new armies from local/conquered people
Function cites played in Afro-Euroasia/the Americas? (600BCE-600CE)
Developed imperial societies
Name 2 important early imperial cities. (600BCE-600CE)
Rome and Teotihuacan
Social structures of early empires displayed what and what groups were usually involved?
Hierarchies: Cultivators, laborers, slaves, artisans, merchants, elites or caste groups
How imperial societies maintain food production?(600BCE-600CE)
Range of methods (Peasants and slavery)
Important reason to produce surplus in imperial societies was(600BCE-600CE):
Rewards fro the loyalty of the elites
___________ continued to shape gender and family relations in imperial societies.(600BCE-600CE)
What empires made more problems than they could handle?(600BCE-600CE)
Rome, Han, Persian, Mauryan, Gupta
Problems Empires created that led to their collapse/decline/transformation(600BCE-600CE)
Political, cultural and administrative
How/what environmental issues did empires make? (600BCE-600CE)
Deforestation, soil erosion
Social tension and econ. problems(concentration of wealth)
External problems did empires face? (600BCE-600CE)
2 important examples of empires’ external problem?(600BCE-600CE)
Romans vs. N and E neighbors
Gupta vs. White Huns
Factors that shaped the early trade routes in the E hemisphre? (600BCE-600CE)
Climate and location of routes
4 most significant trade routes between 600BCE and 600CE?
Eurasian Silk Roads
Trans-Saharan caravan routes
Indian Ocean- sea lanes
Mediterranean sea lanes
New technologies facilitated long-distance communication/exchange between 600BCE and 600CE?
Yokes, saddles and stirrups
Innovations in maritime technology
Factors that stimulated early exchanges along maritime routes from East Africa to East Asia(600BCE-600CE):
Monsoon winds, lateen sail and dow ships
Various forms of exchanges that took place between 600BCE and 600CE?
People, tech, religious/cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals and diseases
Crops spread from South Asia to the Middle East?(600BCE-600CE)
Rice and cotten
Changes did the spread of crops encourage?(600BCE-600CE)
Changes in farming and irrigation techniques
Traditions that were transformed as they spread?(600BCE-600CE)
Dates/theme of the AP time period “Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks”?
Improved transportation/commercial practices, trade
Major factors contributed to more trade between 600CE and 1450CE?
Improved transportation/commercial practices
Existing trade routes flourished between 600CE and 1450CE?
Where did powerful new trading cities develop? Examples? (600CE-1450CE)
Along trade routes
Baghdad, Calicut, Melaka, Tenochtitaln,
Regions of the Americas witnessed new trade routes between 600CE and 1450CE?
Mesoamerica and Andes
Examples of the luxury goods traded between 600CE and 1450CE
Porcelain, spices, gems, slaves, silk/cotten
New technologies helped trade luxury goods between 600CE and 1450CE?
Camel saddles, carava organization, compasses, ship design
Role the state play in trade between 600CE and 1450CE? Examples?
Coin minting, paper money, trade organizations
Trans—Eurasian trade impacted by expansion of existing empires between 600CE and 1450CE?
Conquered drawn into conqueror's economy/trade
Connection between: long-distance trade routes, knowledge of the environment and the technological adaptations?(600CE-1450CE)
The trade depended on the environmental knowledge and technology changed to accommodate that knowledge.
Major mirgrations to have an environmental impact/why?(600CE-1450CE)
Bantu speakers (Iron tech)
Sub-Saharan (Agricultural tech)
Polynesian (maritime migrations/transplants of food and animals)
Language was affected by mirgrations/commercial contact through:
The beliefs and practices of Islam were impacted by interactions between Arabs and _____________.(600CE-1450CE)
Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians
How/where did Islam expand between 600CE and 1450CE?
Afro-Eurasia through military expansion, merchants and missionaries
Important diasporic communities established along trade routes between 600CE and 1450CE?
Muslims (Indian Ocean)
Chinese (SE Asia)
Sogdian (C Asia)
Jewish (Mediterranena, Indian Ocean basin and Silk Roads)
What do the writings of interregional travelers between 600CE and 1450CE illustrate?
Extent and limitaions of knowledge/understanding
Most notable interregional travelers between 600CE and 1450CE?
Examples of cultural diffusion that occurred as a result of cross-cultural interactions between 600CE and 1450CE?
Literature, artistic and cultural traditions
Examples of scientific and technological exchanges that occurred because of cross-cultural interactions between 600CE and 1450CE?
Role did trade play in the spread of epidemic disease? Examples?
Half of Europe disappeared
Examples of new foods and agricultural techniques that spread because of interregional trade and communication between 600CE and 1450CE?
Bananas in Africa
Rice varieties in E Asia
Cotton, sugar, citrus
Dates/theme of the AP time period
associated with the key concept “Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and their Interactions”?
Empires collapse/reconstituted;some new state forms emerged
Defining characteristics of state formation between 600 and 1450CE?
Traditional sources of power and legitmacy
New concept that Islam introduced to Afro-Eurasian statecraft?
Caliphate: Head of Muslim community after Muhhamed
Important “reconstituted” governments between 600 and 1450CE and what they combine in their state forms
Byzantine Empire, Chinese dynasties
Traditional sources of power/legitimacy with innovations (new methods of taxes, adapting religious institutions)
Examples of Islamic states
between 600 and 1450CE.
Abassids, Muslim Iberia, Dehli Sultanates, Mongol Khanates
Where new forms of government
emerge between 600 and 1450CE?
Examples of the synthesis of local and borrowed traditions between 600 and 1450CE.
Persian traditions in Islamic states
Chinese traditions in Japan
Interregional contacts that encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers between 600 and 1450CE?
Tang China and Abbasids, Mongol empires
Steel, iron, silk, religions, gender roles
Dates/theme of the AP time period associated with the key concept “Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange”?
Regions that experienced more regional trade networks between 1450 and 1750CE?
Where European technological developments in cartography and navigation came from? List some examples. (1450-1750)
In classical, Islamic and Asian worlds
: revised maps
New ship designs
Characteristics of Chinese maritime reconnaissance between 1450 and 1750CE:
More prestige: Now in Indian Ocean lead by Ming admiral Zheng He
Characteristics of Portuguese maritime reconnaissance between 1450 and 1750CE:
Educ.=more travel to W Africa
Resulted in global trading post
Characteristics of Spanish maritime reconnaissance between 1450 and 1750CE:
Columbus=more interest in Atlanic/Pacific
Characteristics of North Atlantic maritime reconnaissance between 1450 and 1750CE:
For fish/settlements, increase from Euros
Characteristics of Oceanic and Polynesian maritime reconnaissance between 1450 and 1750CE:
Established trade/communication, little effect from uninterest
Who is cited as having facilitated the global circulation of goods between 1450 and 1750CE?
Royal chartered European monopoly companies
Role silver played in the global economy between 1450 and 1750CE?
Took from Americas to purchase Asian products.
Spanish had leverage over Asia until Asia had all the silver and Spain had gone bankrupt.
How regional markets in Afro-Eurasia continue to flourish between 1450 and 1750CE?
commercial practices/new transoceanic shipping (made by Euros)
What characterized European merchants’
role in Asian trade?(1450-1750)
New methods used by European rulers to control local/colonial economies?
Mercantilism and joint-stock companies.
Characterizes the Atlantic system between 1450 and 1750CE?
Movement of goods/wealth/(un)free labor
What is the Columbian Exchange?
Connection between W and E hemisphere
Diseases and vermin were transferred from Europe to the Americas? What was the result?
Smallpox, measles, mosquitoes, rats
Endemic to American populations
Foods and cash crops moved during the Columbian Exchange? From where to where?
American foods/cash crops (potatoes, maize/tobacco, sugar) to Euro/Asia/Africa
Afro-Eurasia (fruit trees, grains, sugar) to Americas
Domestic animals were part of the Columbian Exchange?
Horses, pigs, cattle
How the Columbian Exchange affect populations in Afro-Eurasia?
Increased pop. from nutrients in American foods
How European colonization affect the environments of colonized areas? Why?
Deforestation and soil depletion from physical demand on the environment to grow crops
Cultural exchanges took place between 1450 and 1750CE?
Religious and syncretic belief systems
Syncretic and new forms of religion developed between 1450 and 1750CE?
Islam split (Sunni/Shi'a/Sufi), Christianity, Buddhism all spread
: Vodun in Caribbean; Cults of saints in Latin America; Sikhism in S Asia
Examples of innovations in visual and performing arts that occurred between 1450 and 1750CE?
Renaissance art in Euro, mini paintings in Mid E/S Asia, woodblock prints in Japan
Examples of popular authors and literary forms that accompanied the expansion of literacy between 1450 and 1750CE?
Shakespeare, Cervantes, Kabuki
Dates/ and the theme of the AP time period associated with the key concept “New Forms of Social Organization and Modes of Production”?
Creation, expansion and interactions of Economic Systems
Changes occurred in the area of peasant labor between 1450 and 1750?
Defining features of African slavery between 1450 and 1750?
Still tradition for households and for exporting to Mediterranean/Indian Ocean
Causation of demand for African slaves in the Americas?
“coerced labor”? List some examples.
Chattel slavery, indentured servitude, hacienda, encomienda, mit'a
New political and economic elite groups formed between 1450 and 1750?
Ethnic, racial, gender
Why did elites' power fluctuate 1450 and 1750? List some examples.
Ability to affect policies of powerful leaders.
What notable gender and family restructuring occurred between 1450 and 1750?
Slave trades changed African demographics
Euro men needed S Asian women for trade
Causation of new ethnic and racial classifications in the Americas? List some examples of these new classifications.
2 primary ways rulers displayed power/legitimized their rule? List some examples.
Arts (monuments, literature)
Religion (divine right, human sacrifice, Shiism)
Trend characterized states’ treatment of different ethnic and religious groups between 1450 and 1750? List some examples.
Using ethnic/religious groups for econ. gain, but not challenging authority
How rulers maintain centralized control over populations and resources between 1450 and 1750?
Bureaucratic elites and military professions
How did rulers generate revenue between 1450 and 1750?
Tax farming and tribute collection
What did imperial expansion rely upon between 1450 and 1750?
Gunpowder, cannons and armed trade
New trading posts established between 1450 and 1750? Other affected regions?
West and Central Africa
What land empires expanded dramatically between 1450 and 1750?
Manchus, Mughals, Ottomans and Russians
What European states established maritime empires in the Americas?
Euro states: Portugal, Spain, Netherlands, France and Britain
Examples of competition over trade routes that occurred between 1450 and 1750?
Omani-Euro rivals in Indian Ocean
State rivalries and local resistance
Examples of state rivalries that occurred between 1450 and 1750?
Thirty year war, Ottoman Safavid conflict
Examples of local resistance that occurred between 1450 and 1750?
Dates /theme of the AP time period key concept “Industrialization and Global Capitalism”?
Industry, capitalism, 1750-1900
What made fossil fuel exploitation possible? What types of fossil fuels were most commonly used between 1750 and 1900?
Machines (steam/combustion engine) made coal and oil useable.
The “____________________” revolution greatly increased the energy available to human societies.
2 important changes that occurred as a result of the development of the factory system?
More specialized labor and more concentrated labor
Where new methods of production spread from/to?
From NW Europe to U.S. Japan, Russia, the rest of Europe
When was the “second industrial revolution”? What methods of production did it involve?
Creation of new methods of production: Steel, chemicals, electricity, precision machines
What led to new patterns of global trade further integration of the global economy between 1750 and 1900?
Need for more raw material and new markets.
Needs that led to growth of export economies specializing in "single natural resources" and what were the profits used for?
Raw material, such as cotten, rubber, sugar and the profits went to purchasing finished goods
Led to the decline of agriculturally based economies between 1750 and 1900? Example?
Development of indurstrial production
The rapid development of industrial production encouraged industrialized states to seek out new ____________________________ for their finished goods. Provide some examples:
Trying to open Chinese markets
What led to the development of extensive mining centers between 1750 and 1900? Examples?
Need for specialized and limited metals for industrical production
Who provided the ideological inspiration for economic changes between 1750 and 1900?
Adam Smith and Johm Stuart Mill
What “financial instruments” came into extensive use between 1750 and 1900?
Stock markets, insurance, god standard, limited liablity corporations
Major transportation and communication developments occurred between 1750 and 1900?
Railroads, steamships, telegraphs and canals
What gains did newly developed workers’ organization hope to achieve?
Improve working conditions, limited hours, and higher wages.
Why did some workers promote alternative visions of society? Examples?
To oppose capitalist exploitation of workers.
Utopian socialism, Marxism and anarchism
Imperial governments from the era 1750-1900 resisted economic change and tried to stay pre-industrial?
Qing China and Ottoman
Examples of state-sponsored visions of industrialization?
Econ reforms in Meiji Japan, factories and railroads in Russia
Examples of reforms that some regions instituted in response to criticism of global capitalism?
Pensions, health care, public education
What new classes developed between
1750 and 1900?
Middle and industrial
Changes occurred in family life and gender roles between 1750 and 1900?
Family dynamics, gender roles, demographics
Changes occurred as a result of rapid urbanization between 1750 and 1900?
Unsanitary conditions, new forms of community
Which states’ existing
colonies were strengthened between 1750 and 1900?
Which states established new empires throughout Asia and the Pacific between 1750 and 1900?
European (British, Dutch, French, Germans, Russian, American)
Which states’ influence declined between 1750 and 1900?
Spanish and Portuguese
Which states established settler colonies between 1750 and 1900? Where?
Brits in Africa/Australia/New Zealand, French in Algeria
What economic practice did many powerful states employ outside of their established empire between 1750 and 1900? Examples?
What influenced the emergence of Meiji Japan?
U.S and Europe
Who emulated European transoceanic imperialism between 1750 and 1900?
U.S and Russia
How was the Ottoman Empire affected by anti-imperial resistance?
It led to its contraction and independent states like Balkans
Examples of states that developed at the edges of existing empires between 1750 and 1900?
Chreokee nation, Siam, Hawai' and Zulu kingdom
What new ideology helped to foster new communal identities between 1750 and 1900? Examples?
Spread of nationalism fostered new communal identities such as German nation, Filipino nationalism
How was imperialism often justified?
Racial ideologies and Social Darwinism
What are the dates and the theme of
the AP time period associated with the key concept “Nationalism, Revolution,
1750-1900 Revolution and Rebellion
Defining characteristics of enlightened thought and how did they affect politics?
Questioning traditions made people question traditional government/practices
Examples of “thinkers” (intellectuals) from the enlightenment era. What did they encourage? What did they critique? What did their political ideas focus on?
State of Nature
Ownership of land
3 important examples of revolutionary documents from the enlightenment era:
American Declaration of Independence
French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Bolivar's Jamaica Letter
Major social and political shifts did Enlightenment thinking inspire between 1750 and 1900?
Challenging of existing notions of social relations
Between 1750 and 1900,
newly imagined national communities were built around a sense of commonality
typically based on what four things?
Language, religion, social customs, territory
What centralized imperial governments witnessed rebellions/revolutions between 1750 and 1900?
Qahhabi rebellion against the ottoman
American colonial rebellions facilitated the emergence of independent states in what regions?
U.S., Haiti, mainland Latin America
What are the 4 major independence movements that occurred between 1750 and 1900?
American Revolution, French Revolution, Haitian Revolution, Latin American independence movements
What areas witnessed significant slave resistance between 1750 and 1900?
Brazil, Cuba, Guyanas
2 anticolonial movements that occurred in Asia between 1750 and 1900? What inspired these movements?
Revoilt of 1957 and the Boxer Rebellion
Name several important rebellions between 1750-1900 that were based on religious beliefs/millenarianism.
Taiping Rebellion, Ghost Dance, xhosa Cattle killing Movement
Examples of imperial reforms that were implemented in response increasing rebellions
between 1750 and 1900?
Tansimat movement, Self-Strengthening Movement
New political ideologies were inspired by the rebellions of 1750-1900?
Liberalism, socialism, communism
Examples of the challenges to gender hierarchies between 1750 and 1900?
Demands for women's suffrage: Mary Wollstonecrafts's "A vindication of the Rights of Women
Dates/theme of the AP time period associated with the key concept “Global Migration”?
What influenced migration between 1750 and 1900?
Changes in demography (industrial and unindustrial)
What contributed to global rise in population between 1750 and 1900?
Food production and medical condition
What influenced the significant global urbanization of the 19th century?
Nature of new modes of transportation
What sorts of individuals chose to relocate in search of work between 1750 and 1900?
Manual laborersm specialized professionals
What types of labor did the global capitalist community continue to rely on between 1750 and 1900? List some examples.
Coerced and semi coerced labor migration: Slavery, indentured servants and convict labor
Examples of temporary/ seasonal migrants who returned to their home societies rather than
Japanese agricultural workers, Lebanese merchants, Italians
Why did migrant workers of the 19th
century tend to be male? How did this
change women’s roles in the home societies?
The physical nature of the labor which allowed the women to stay home and fill previously male positions
What are some examples of ethnic
enclaves created by migrants in different parts of the world?
Chinese in SE Asia, Caribbean, Americas, Indians in E and S Africa
What role did ethnic enclaves play
in migrants’ lives?
Bring their culture and create networks of migrant support
What are some of the ways in which
receiving societies reacted to immigrants?
They tried to regulate the flow of people
Dates/theme of the AP time period associated with the key concept “Science and the Environment”?
Acclerating Global Changes and Realignments
What eliminated the problem of geographic distance between 1900 and the present day?
Advanced transportation and communication
What new scientific paradigms transformed human understanding of the world between 1900 and the present day?
Theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, Big Band Theory, psychology
What are the defining characteristics of the green revolution?
More food and more chemically/genetically enhanced foods
Examples of new technologies that raised productivity and increased the production of material goods between 1900 and the present day?
Energy tech (oil, nuclear)
What changed in the use of natural resources between 1900 and the present day?
More competition and intensified usage.
What major factors contributed to the global warming that occurred between 1900 and the present day?
Greenhouse gases, pollution
Name some environmental consequences of human’s changed relationship with the natural world between 1900 and the present day?
Extinction, deforestation, desertification, air/water pollution
What diseases are associated with poverty?
Malaria, tuberculosis, cholera
What diseases emerged as epidemics between 1900 and the present day?
Influenza Ebola, HIV/AIDS
What factors led to higher incidences of diseases like diabetes, heart disease, and alzheimer’s?
Changing lifestyles and longer life spans
What were some results of new forms of birth control that were developed between 1900 and the present day?
More fertility control for women
What factors led to increased levels of wartime casualties between 1900 and the present day? List some examples.
Improved military tech
Tanks, airplanes, Atomic bombs, new tactics
Which land-based empires collapsed in the twentieth century? List some reasons.
Ottoman, Russian, Qing
Econ., social/political distress
Which major colonies negotiated their independence from the British Empire in the twentieth century?
India and Gold Coast
Which major colonies achieved their independence through armed struggle in the early twentieth century?
Algeria, Vietnam and Angola
What emerging ideologies contributed to the dissolution of empires and the restructuring of states in the early twentieth century?
Name some examples of nationalist leaders challenged imperial rule between 1900 and the present day?
In Asia/Africa: Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Kwame Nkrumah
Name some examples of regional, religious, and ethnic movements that challenged both colonial rule and inherited imperial boundaries between 1900 and the present day?
Muhammed Ali Jinna, the Québécois separaist movement and the Biafra secessionist movement
Which transregional movements sought to unite people across national boundaries between 1900 and the present day?
Communism, pan-Arabism, pan-Africanism
What sorts of movements concerning land distribution developed between 1900 and the present day?
Redistribution, sometimes about socialism and communism
Which redrawn colonial boundaries led to population resettlements between 1900 and the present day?
Indian/Pakistan partition, Zionist Jewish settlement of Palestine and division of the Middle East into mandatory states
What trend helped maintain cultural and economic ties between former colonies and European metropoles after the disillusion of empires?
Migration of former colonial subjects to imperial metropoles
Name some examples of ethnic violence that occurred between 1900 and the present day.
Armenia, Holocaust, Cambodia an Rwanda
Which major examples of ethnic violence resulted in refugee populations between 1900 and the present day?
Palestines and Darfurians
What types of ideologies did
governments use to mobilize their state’s resources for the purpose of waging
war in the 20th century?
Fascism, Nationalism, and communism
What are some examples of governments recruiting people from colonies or former colonies for war efforts?
Gurkha soldiers in India, ANZAC troops in Australia
What types of strategies did governments use to mobilize populations in the 20th century?
Political speeches, art, media, intensified forms of nationalism
What are 6 primary sources of global conflict in the 20th century?
Imperialist expansion by European powers and Japan
Competition for resources
Great Power rivalries between Great Britain and Germany
Economic crisis engendered by the great depression
The global balance of economic and political power shifted after the end of ____________.
What two nations emerged as super powers after WWII? What conflict did they become involved in? This was a struggle between which two ideologies?
U.S and Soviet Union
What military alliances formed out of the Cold War? What types of smaller wars did it encourage? What ended it?
NATO, Warsaw pact
Dissolution of USSR
Name some examples of individuals who challenged war and promoted the practice of non-violence.
Picasso, antinuclear movements, Thich Quang Duc, Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.
Name some examples of individuals who opposed and promoted alternatives to existing economic and social orders.
Vladimir Lenin and Mao Zedong
Name some examples of militarized states who responded to the proliferation of conflicts in ways that intensified the conflicts.
Military dictatorship of Chile, Spain, Uganda and U.S.'s promotion of a New World Order after cold war
What are the dates and the theme of the AP time period associated with the key concept “New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society, and Culture”?
New institutions of global governance, 1900 to present
In which 20th century states did the government control the national economies? Examples?
Communist states of Soviet Union and China
In which states did the governments play a minimal role in the economy in the early 20th century? What major event changed this trend?
U.S, parts of Europe
The Great Depression
What are some examples of newly independent states taking on a strong role in guiding economic life to promote development after WWII?
Nasser's promotion of econ. development in Egypt, export oriented econ. in East Asia
What are some examples of governments encouraging free market economic policies and promoting economic liberalization at the end of the twentieth century?
U.S. under Reagan, Britain under Thatcher, China under Deng Xiaoping, Chile under Pinochet
What facilitated the increasing interdependence of states, communities, and individuals in the 20th century?
New international organizations
List some examples of new international organizations that were formed to maintain world peace and facilitate international cooperation in the 20th century.
League of Nations, United Nations
List some examples of new economic institutions that sought to spread the principles and practices associated with free market economies throughout the world in the 20th century.
IMF, World Bank, WTO
List some examples of humanitarian organizations that developed to respond to humanitarian crises throughout the world in the 20th century.
UNICEF, Red Cross, Amnesty International, Doctors without borders and the WHO
List some examples of regional trade agreements that created regional trading blocs designed to promote the movement of capital and goods across national borders in the 20th century.
European Union, NAFTA, ASEAN and Mercosur
List some examples of multinational corporations that began to challenge state authority and autonomy in the 20th century.
Royal Dutch Shell, Coca-cola, Sony
List some examples of protest movements that protested the inequality of environmental and economic consequences of global integration in the 20th century.
Greenpeace, Green Belt, Earth Day
List some examples of human rights movements that gained traction throughout the world in the 20th century.
UN declaration of Human rights, Women's rights, end of the White Australia Policy
What were 2 results of increased interactions among diverse peoples in the 20th century?
New cultural ID's, exclusionary reactions (xenophobia, race riots, citizenship restrictions)
List some examples of new forms of spirituality and religious emphasis that developed in the 20th century.
New Age Religions, Hare Krishna, Falun Gong
What are some examples of popular culture that became global in the 20th century?
Ancient Mespotamian towers/temples of rectangles of diminishing size, shrine on top
Pictoral symbol representing an object/concept
Writing system used in ancient Near East from end of 4th millennium to 100BCE, Sumerians used it.
Character/figure representing idea instead of its name
Sculpture with design barely standing out from background
Characters in a writing system based on use of pictograms
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese concept:Ruler's power based on moral character determined by heaven.
Conventional, widely accepted view of historical record.
New stone age; domestication and metalurgy
Similar cultural tech./objects found among diff. people independantly
Spread of ideas/objects/traits/etc. between cultures
Stone walled enclosures/ buildings in African Iron age.
Predominance of one unit over the others in a group. Lots of consent to rule by foreign governments
Imposition of alien gov. by force. Opposite of hegemony
Balance of power
Policy to secure peace by preventing a dominant power
Province or colony in the achaemenid/Persian empire ruled by a satrop or governer
Rural district/willage in ancient Greece
Heavily armed foot soldier of Greece
Central feature of ancient Greek town planning. Usually market/political meeting place
Professor who'd teach multiple subjects for a fee: math, science, literature, ethnics
Greek word for inhabited world and designating a distinct cultural historical community
"Roman Peace" state of comparatice concord within Rome
State of rule by an appointed person under constitution
Man born into Roman family, aristocrat
Citizen not part of patrician class
Plebeian officer elected by plebeians to protect them
Officer elected by senate of Rome to admin the Republic
1 of 2 magistrates holding supreme civil/military authority
Smallest unit of armies, 100 foot soldiers
Elected at time of crisis with extraordinary power for ~6 months
Patron protects client, client provides service for patron
Male heads family until death
Collected taxes but kept some themselves. Oppressed tax payers
Bread and circuses
Free food/entertainment to keep poor from politics
Ruler or Emperor
Literally association of 3 strong men
Consul as leader of an army then in charge of justice
Military unit stationed in one province of the Byzantine Empire.
Person who rejects the veneration of icons on the grounds that the practice is idolatrous
Greeks term for foreign/uncivilized people
Pessimistic; social harmony only in strong gov. control
Adoption by foreign people of Chinese culture
Diff. ethnic group lose culture ID through contact of dominant society
Subgroup of indo-Iranian branch of indo-euro group of language from Sanskrit.
Large political district in India ~700BCe
Sworn association of people from some common purpse
Aboriginal people of India outside of the caste system
Hand gesture with specific meaning/significance
Blissful nothingness our souls return to
Being of wisdom, worthy of nirvana but chooses rebirth to aid the living
Formula of uttering words/sounds believed to possess spiritual power
Symbolic circular diagram of geometric shapes
writing system where each symbol represents a syllable of a word
Herbrew for the 1st 5 books of bible written in Hebrew
Dispertion of people, commonly referring to Jews
Lost ten tribes
10 tribes that dispersed in 721 BCE and lsot their Jewish heritage/place in history
Christian rite/ritual which is an outward sign of spiritual grace
Central sacrament/act of worship in Christian church
Speaking in tongues
Mode of praying where words aren't understood but meaningful
Philosophy founded by Plontinas emphasizing transcendant impersonal/indefinable "one" as ground of all existance
Belief tat is not in agreement with the official orthodoxy of its time/place
Movement to remove icons from orthodox worship
Community of Muslims regardless of ethnicity
Land of Islam where its religious laws are freely practiced
Migration of muhammed from Mecca to Medina
Spiritual head of Muslim community
Islamic title for a person whose leadership/example is to followed
Messianic leader who'll restore justice, truth and religion before a Day of Judgement
In Islam a member of one of the orders practicing mystical forms of worship
Traditional records of deeds/utterances of Muhammed
Method of Quranic interpretatoion
Theological legal experts of Islam
Generic term meaning path
Sun goes around earth
Increase of value from cost of raw materials
System where means of production are largely privae, little to no gov. control
Supply and demand
Commodity sold/quantity bought
Econ where goal is to provide basic needs for all before taking profits
Networks of international traders who relate to each other through bonds of their trade
Rough roads/transport links across central Asia
Triangular sail fixed to crossbar at 45 degrees capable of taking against the wind on either side
Pattern of seasonal migration
Portable dwelling used by nomadic people of central Asia
Rebirth, refers to period of cultural/intellectual creativity in W euro
Putting out system
Employers provide employees raw material and orders for making finished product
Part of a city where a group is segregated/confined
Middle period of Europe during renassiance
Cultural movement initiated in W euro ~14 cent. Emphasis on study of humans
Econ. System characterized by private/corporate ownership of means of product, control price/distribution
16th-18th cent euro policy to strengthen specific nations econ. by stockpiling reserves
Spanish soldiers who invaded/conquered new world kingdoms especially in Mexico/Peru
Concesssion from Spanish crown allowing colonists to collect tributes of Native Americans
System of allowing colonists to get slave labor from natives
Forced labor systems in Peru originally under Inca, forcing a set number of Native slaves
Large rural estate in Spanish America
Catholic church remission for sins through good works/special prayers ~16th cent began to sell.
16th cent reformation of religins from Luther, Calvin and Henry VIII
Official search of Jews pretending to be christian/not properly christian observing people. Both illegal in Spain
Stock exchange name in euro
England's right from Spain to carry cargo from Africa to Spanish America
State with own gov./shared culture
Term establishing a relationship between two parties defining themselves in contrast to each other
Farmer bound to a land/legally owned by a landlord
Benevolent form of absolutism (ruler controls all) but efficent and humane
Herediraty military dictator of Japan
Hereditary warrior-aristocrat of Japanese society
Quantitative study of humans pop.
Lands conquered/explored by Euros
Massive euro inflation 1400-1600
Labor performed for a certain person for a set number of years
Mix of diff cultures
Member of a religious community founded in the Punjab region of N India
Divine right of kings
Political doctrine saying monarch's power is from God
Theory that all knowledge originates in experience
Sate of nature
Mythical situation where people lived in anarchy
Mythical code among early state of nature peoples as a form of government
1450-1640 English law converting public land into private
18th century writers emphasizied supremacy of human reason
Inhabitants of walled towns between feudalism and rural peasentry
French revolutionary party 1789 later the most radical
Mid. class moderate revolutionary group
Associated with Jacobins radical, artisans/shopkeepers, opposed Girondins
Poorer/militant class called this because they wore trousers rather than knee breeches
Congress of Vienna
Representatives of leading countries, redrew borders, balance of power
Caribbean religion blending African/Catholic faiths
Escaped slave who joins a free colony in the hills
Mixed race (Euro-African)
Mixed race (Euro-Indian)
White person from Spain
American born descendant of Portuguese
Military leader who takes political power
Control of one country by another through econ.
Applied to leader of Independent revolts against Spain in Latin America.
Once: New tech in Euro, Now: Unprecedented transition in social organization/political/military power
Systematic concern with field crop production/soil management
Association of independent businessmen deeming to control the supply of a particular commodity/group of commodities in order to regulate prices
Capital needed to finance new industry. Marked transition to age of larder business
Iron law of wages
Belief that more income=more children, 1900 reversed to more income-less children
Wage earned by male, stable enough to support family, suggestion women belong in the home
Ideal valuing women who work at home/create safe have for husband
Professional/clerical job;office/clean work
Restricted import of food to England. Favored rural agriculture to urban consumers. repealed 1846
Believed too much wealth goes to property owners/industry, too little to the workers
Collective noun designating working class that produces wealth
Self-contained planned town combining work, residential, agricultural and recreational facilities and surrounded by a rural belt
Positive feeling of belonging to one's nation.
Ottoman Empire's system of rule through religious communities
Blood and iron
Bismarck's policy of using warfare against enemies as a means of unifying a nation
Murderous attack on a group of people-usually based on ethnicity/religion that is (un)officially sanctioned by the gov.
Theory saying core countries dominate/ control peripherial
Dominant creatures deserve dominance
White man's burden
Concept saying white>others/must improve them
System of Dutch rule over Indonesian agriculture, forcing peasents to give 20% of land to cash crops for exports.
1834-41 Dutch established their own colony away from Irish because they were too liberal
Literally "time of troubles"
Convened by Bismarck of Germany to settle Euro disputes over African territory peacefully
Scramble for africa
Rush of Euros to colonize African territories assigned to them
British trader/admin who grew rich in India
Territory in Japan controlled by a feudal lord
Western Science: Urging acceptance of W science/tech by favoring Japanese culture
Revere the Emperor; expel the Barbarian
Conservative position of rejecting everything western
Reforms in Japan under emperor Mutsuhito
Strategy of defense where everything useful is destroyed
Guerrilla warriors fighting against occupying armies
Military term for day of an important op.
Social attributes of being male or female in contrast to biological
Act of murdering an entire people
Term fro U.S and USSR
Warfare between differently armed/equipped/stratigized groups
Mocking comment from Chinese about U.S.'s refrain from nuking everything
Describing relative peace in America
American program of econ. assistance for noncommunist Euros
Sphere of influences
Geopolitical region one power is considered dominent in
Churchill describes division of Euro by Soviets
Postwar policy to contain soviets
Strategy by calling opponents unpatriotic
Chief admin of corrective labor camps founded by stalin
Assertion of power by one country over another
When Czechosloakia thought it'd be independent
Doctrine 1968 Leonid Brezhnv declared intervention in any country trying to gain independence
Belief by american policymakers of one country becoming communist so will the others
Today: Poor countries Historically: Newly independent ones
newly independent but out of Cold War countries
War between dependent client states
Country econ. dependent on one cash crop
Expected to decline
Expected to rise
Asian countires doing well in the last 2 decades
Revolution in agriculture production brought about by new hybrid seeds
Chinese Soviets, gov. councils of peasents/rural
paramedics for basic levels of medicine in rural areas
W term for Chinese methods of group pressure/psychological coercion to extract confessions
Hundred flowers campaign
Mao inviting people to speak their minds then arresting them
Great Leap Forward
China building econ. on small/local/rural communities
Basing econ on rural/ignoring intelligence/culture
Person out of the caste system
German word for practical politics
Return of wealthy to rundown parts of cities to invest/revitalize
Old principle requiring governments/agents to present accused in detention/state charges
Today refers to free market, capitalistic economy with little gov. intervention
Title of pprestigious and powerful Muslim religious leaders in Iran
System of government based religious beliefs and texts and headed by religious leaders
Islam, following very strict conservative teachings.
Militant Islamic group
Euphemism for genocide.
Political religious slogan calling for merger of Hindu religion with power of Indian state
Arab residents in territories along Mediterranean and Jordan River (W). No legal citiznship in Israel or other states.
Movement in Catholic church combining social concerns of Marxism with Christian gospel focusing on poor.
Forms of Protestant Christianity that emphasize the literal truth and authority of the bible.
Christians who stress a direct personal experience to God, Jesus and the revelation rather than the authority of scripture or of the church hierarchy
How people, institutions and nations are brought into unified networks of interaction
Buying goods and services from far away from where they'll be used.
Econ. system based on self-sufficiency
Condition where participants in a system think it's fair but it isn't really.
Policy of protecting domestic production from external competition
Quality of marketing public and clear the transactions of gov/private enterprise
Act of selling off gov. owned enterprises
Act of shaking off/rebellion
Micro-finance or micro credit
Provision of small loans to small scale businesspeople.
Set common, restrictive rules limiting immigration and importation
Negative designations applied by potential immigrants who were denied entrance to Europe
Individual cases of someone fearing they will be killed if they return to their countries.
The mixing of cultures to produce new forms.
Chinese dynasties (in order)
Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han, Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic of China, People's Republic of China (Mao Zedong)
Three African Empires
Ghana (600-1235), Mali (1235-1464) and Songhai (1464-1700)
political theory stressing individualism: beginnings in w Europe that rejects authoritarian government and defends freedom of speech, association, and religion, and the right to own property
Before 600BCE most early civilizations had
Urban centers, growing populations and writing systems
The Mughal Empire was
Made up of Muslims
Around in the fourth time period (1526-1757)
Had Roads, uniform currancy
Had strong resistance against it
The Ottoman Empire
Had little resistance against it
Had a Sultan or emperor
Ended the Byzantine Empire
Important reason of pop. growth in China during 17th and 18th centuries
What did the N and S American revolutions share?
Revolutionary demands based on enlightenment political ideas
philosophical, intellectual and cultural movement of 17th/18th centuries.
Stressed reason, logic, criticism and freedom of thought over dogma, blind faith and superstition
National Atlanic Treaty Organization (NATO) came from
The Cold War
Why is the 20th century considered a break in World History?
Use of petroleum/humans' interaction with the environment.
Pop. increase from 1.6 billion to 6.1 billion
New communist states in China and Russia
The Mughals and Ottomans both
Expanded with the use of gunpowder and extensive bureaucracies
The Dehli Sultanate
Relied primarily on sea routes to participate in the silk trade across Asia
Simon Bolivar was trying to
Influence the Creole elites with his Jamaica Letter
Difference between chinese and india social structures
Confucian social hierarchies privildged government officials
What suggests Europeans didn't control the largest share of world trade in the 17th/18th centuries?
European trading companies backing long distance trade with military force
U.S. Declaration of Independance and French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen both reflect
A concern for the protection of private property
Have a DBQ essay that
Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with evidence from the documents
Uses all of the documents.
Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible. Does not simplysummarize the documents individually.
Takes into account the sources of the documents and analyzes the authors’ points of view.
Identifies and explains the need for at least one additional type of document