AP WORLD; Deardorf's key concepts

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AP WORLD; Deardorf's key concepts
2013-05-10 18:59:37
Key Concepts AP world everything posted terms from text book

Key concepts 1.1-6.3 and key terms
Show Answers:

  1. dates/theme of the AP time period key concept “Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth”
    • Prehistory to 600BCE
    • Tech and environmental transformations
  2. famous age/period early human migrations took place?
    Paleolithic period
  3. Early migrations began in
  4. anthropologists believe what about social structures of early hunter-foragers?
    They were egalitarian (belief in equality of all people)
  5. “technologies” early humans develop/how they used these technologies?
    • Fire: Food, protection
    • Primal hunting tools
  6. Why early humans develop different tools in different regions?
    They made what they needed and traded for what they couldn't
  7. What do we know about economic structures of early hunter-forager bands?
    They were not self sufficient and traded people, ideas and goods
  8. dates/theme of the AP time period key concept “The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies”?
    • Prehistory to 600BCE
    • Tech and environmental transformations
  9. major historical turning point occurred about 10,000 years ago?
    End of the last Ice Age and some people started to settle and get into agriculture
  10. How/why the switch to agriculture impacted the environment?
    Extreme selection/exclusion of specific plants, irrigation and domestic animals.
  11. How social structures changed with switch to agriculture?
    • Population increased.
    • Patriarchy and specialization of labor.
  12. What is pastoralism/where it first emerged?
    • Africa and Eurasia
    • People with domesticated animals who led herds around grazing ranges
  13. Defining characteristics of the pastoralist way of life?
    • More socially stratified than hunter/foragers
    • Mobile, few material possesions
  14. How pastoralists affect people in settled agricultural communities?
    They became a natural connection between settled populations and brought over new tech
  15. seven major regions associated with the emergence of agriculture?
    • Mesopotamia
    • Nile River Valley/Sub-Suharan Africa
    • Indus River Valley
    • Yellow (Huang He) River Valley
    • Papua New Guinea
    • Mesoamerica
    • Andes
  16. Why did people in agricultural communities have to work cooperatively with one another?
    To clear land and control the water for crops
  17. The emergence of agriculture impacted the environment by
    • Less diversity from selective farmers
    • Pastoralists overgrazed
  18. Pastorialism affected the environment by
  19. Pastorialism and agriculture affected the food supply because of
    More reliable and abundant
  20. How/why were the early human populations affected by pastorialism adn agriculture?
    They increased due to the food supply
  21. How did agriculture affect human labor systems before 600 BCE?
    • Specialization of labor
    • New Classes: Warriors, artisans, elites
  22. How specialization of labor impacted technology before 600 BCE?
    Improved agricultural production, trade, transport.
  23. Important technological innovations that emerged from specialization of labor such include
    • Pottery
    • Plows
    • Woven textiles (clothes)
    • Metallurgy
    • Wheels
  24. Important characteristics of the elite groups that emerged with the switch pastoralism and agriculture
    More hierarchical social structures
  25. When did the first societies develop that laid the foundations for civilization?
    5000 years urban societies developed
  26. The term ‘civilization’ used to designates
    Large societies with cites and powerful states.
  27. Important features all civilizations share?
    • Agricultural surplus
    • Specialization of labor
    • Cites/complex institutions
    • Hierarchies
  28. In regards to labor systems, what do agricultural surpluses permit?
    Significant specialization of labor
  29. Name the “core & foundational civilizations” where agriculture flourished.
    • Mesopotamia
    • Egypt
    • Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa
    • Shang
    • Olmecs
    • Chavín
  30. Defining characteristics of a “state”?
    • Systems of rule
    • Single leader
    • Surplus labor and resources
  31. Typical defining characteristics of early states leaders?
    • Believed to be divine
    • Supported by military
  32. What are the Hittites known for?
    Access to iron and other resources
  33. What does it mean to be a “favorably situated” state?
    Having greater access to resources
  34. What was a common trend in early states with food surplus and growing populations?
    Expansion and conquering
  35. Which 3 regions experienced the first empire building?
    • Mesopotamia
    • Babylonia
    • Nile Valley
  36. How did pastoralists transform civilizations?
    Developed/spread new weapons (bows, iron weapons) and new modes of transportation (chariots, horseback)
  37. How culture helped to unify states?
    helped unify through language, lit., religion, myth, monumental art
  38. Examples of monumental architecture and urban planning in early civilizations?
    Ziggurats, pyramids, temples, defensive walls, streets/roads, sewage/water systems
  39. Who promoted the arts and artisanship in early civilizations?
    Political/religious elites
  40. Systems of record keeping arose _____________ in all early civilizations.  Some examples of these are:
    • Independently
    • Cuneiform, Hieroglyphs, Pictographs, Alphabets, Quipu
  41. Example of an early legal code?
    Code of Hammurabi
  42. Religious beliefs developed during period of early/core civilizations?
    • Vedic religon
    • Hebrew monotheism
    • Zoroastrianism
  43. How trade changed during prehistory to 600BCE?
    Expanded: Local to regional to transregional
  44. Examples of civilizations that exchanged goods,ideas and tech during early civilizations (prehistory-600BCE)
    • Egypt and Nubia
    • Mesopotamis and Indus Valley
  45. How did the social systems change during the period of early civilizations (prehistory-600BCE)
    Social/gender hierarchies intensified/expanded
  46. Examples of literature from the period of early civilizations (prehistory-600BCE)
    • Epics of Gilgamesh
    • Rig veda
    • Book of the dead
  47. Dates/theme of the AP time period key concept “The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions”?
    • Organization and reorganization
    • 600BCE-600CE
  48. The codification of the ________ scriptures further associated Judaism with monotheism.
  49. The Hebrew scriptures influenced the cultural/legal traditions of what area?
  50. Trend influenced the Jewish diasporic communities in the Middle East?
    Which peoples were involved?
    Conquering of the Jews by Assyrian, Babylonian, Roman empires
  51. Sanskrit scriptures formed the basis of the __________ religions, which later became known as __________.
    Vedic Hinduism
  52. Core Buddhist beliefs/scritpures?
    • Desire, suffering and search for enlightenment
    • Sutras
  53. Buddhism was, in part, a reaction to ____________.
  54. Emperor _______________ of _____________ supported the spread of Buddhism.  Buddhism was also spread through ___________________________.
    Ashoka of Maurya, missionaries and merchants
  55. The philosophical belief system of ___________ came out of China.
  56. Confucianism’s main goal was:
    Social harmony through proper rituals and social relationships.
  57. Core beliefs of Daoism?
    Balance between humans and nature
  58. Role Daoism played in developing Chinese culture:
    Influence through medical theories/practices, pottery, metallurgy and architecture
  59. Christianity drew on which religious
  60. Initially, Christianity rejected _______________ influences.
    Roman and Hellenistic
  61. Christianity initially spread through ____________, and later through the support of ____________________. (600BCE-600CE)
    • Missionaries, merchants
    • Emperor Constantine
  62. Core ideas of Greco-Roman philosophy/science?
    • Logic
    • empirical observations
    • nature of political power/hierarchy
  63. Role did belief systems played in social systems? (600BCE-600CE)
    Affected gender roles
  64. What belief systems continued alongside other belief systems and how did they survive outside core civilizations?
    • Shamanism and animism, Ancestor veneration
    • Thanks to their daily reliance on the natural world
  65. What art forms were influenced by belief systems? Examples? (600BCE-600CE)
    Literature and drama (Greek plays, Indian epics), distinct architectural styles
  66. The number and size of key states and empires grew dramatically by:(600BCE-600CE)
    Imposing political unity on previously competing states
  67. What are the 6 key states/empires and their locations?(600BCE-600CE)
    • SW Asia: Persian Empires
    • E Asia: Quin and Han Empires
    • S Asia: Maurya and Gupta Empires
    • Mediterranean region: Phoenicia, Greece, Heelenistic/Roman States
    • Mesoamerica: Teotihuacan, Maya
    • Andean S America: Moche
  68. What rulers of empires create to organize their subjects? (600BCE-600CE)
    New techniques of imperial admin. based on earlier political forms
  69. Two important elements of imperial administrations are:
    • Centralized gov.
    • Elaborate legal systems and bureaucracies
  70. What regions hosted the most famous administrative institutions?
    • China
    • Persia
    • Rome
    • South Asia
  71. Name 4 ways in which imperial governments projected military power over large areas.
    • Diplomacy
    • Developing supply lines
    • Building fortification/defensive walls and roads
    • Drawing new armies from local/conquered people
  72. Function cites played in Afro-Euroasia/the Americas? (600BCE-600CE)
    Developed imperial societies
  73. Name 2 important early imperial cities. (600BCE-600CE)
    Rome and Teotihuacan
  74. Social structures of early empires displayed what and what groups were usually involved?
    Hierarchies: Cultivators, laborers, slaves, artisans, merchants, elites or caste groups
  75. How imperial societies maintain food production?(600BCE-600CE)
    Range of methods (Peasants and slavery)
  76. Important reason to produce surplus in imperial societies was(600BCE-600CE):
    Rewards fro the loyalty of the elites
  77. ___________ continued to shape gender and family relations in imperial societies.(600BCE-600CE)
  78. What empires made more problems than they could handle?(600BCE-600CE)
    Rome, Han, Persian, Mauryan, Gupta
  79. Problems Empires created that led to their collapse/decline/transformation(600BCE-600CE)
    Political, cultural and administrative
  80. How/what environmental issues did empires make? (600BCE-600CE)
    • Deforestation, soil erosion 
    • Social tension and econ. problems(concentration of wealth)
  81. External problems did empires face? (600BCE-600CE)
  82. 2 important examples of empires’ external problem?(600BCE-600CE)
    • Romans vs. N and E neighbors
    • Gupta vs. White Huns
  83. Factors that shaped the early trade routes in the E hemisphre? (600BCE-600CE)
    Climate and location of routes
  84. 4 most significant trade routes between 600BCE and 600CE?
    • Eurasian Silk Roads
    • Trans-Saharan caravan routes
    • Indian Ocean- sea lanes
    • Mediterranean sea lanes
  85. New technologies facilitated long-distance communication/exchange between 600BCE and 600CE?
    • Yokes, saddles and stirrups
    • Domesticated animals
    • Innovations in maritime technology
  86. Factors that stimulated early exchanges along maritime routes from East Africa to East Asia(600BCE-600CE):
    Monsoon winds, lateen sail and dow ships
  87. Various forms of exchanges that took place between 600BCE and 600CE?
    People, tech, religious/cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals and diseases
  88. Crops spread from South Asia to the Middle East?(600BCE-600CE)
    Rice and cotten
  89. Changes did the spread of crops encourage?(600BCE-600CE)
    Changes in farming and irrigation techniques
  90. Traditions that were transformed as they spread?(600BCE-600CE)
    • Christianity
    • Hinduism
    • Buddism
  91. Dates/theme of the AP time period  “Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks”?
    • Improved transportation/commercial practices, trade
    • 600CE-1450CE
  92. Major factors contributed to more trade between 600CE and 1450CE?
    Improved transportation/commercial practices
  93. Existing trade routes flourished between 600CE and 1450CE?
    • Silk Roads
    • Mediterranean Sea
    • Trans Saharan
    • Indian Ocean
  94. Where did powerful new trading cities develop?  Examples? (600CE-1450CE)
    • Along trade routes
    • Baghdad, Calicut, Melaka, Tenochtitaln,
  95. Regions of the Americas witnessed new trade routes between 600CE and 1450CE?
    Mesoamerica and Andes
  96. Examples of the luxury goods traded between 600CE and 1450CE
    Porcelain, spices, gems, slaves, silk/cotten
  97. New technologies helped trade luxury goods between 600CE and 1450CE?
    Camel saddles, carava organization, compasses, ship design
  98. Role the state play in trade between 600CE and 1450CE? Examples?
    Coin minting, paper money, trade organizations
  99. Trans—Eurasian trade impacted by expansion of existing empires between 600CE and 1450CE?
    Conquered drawn into conqueror's economy/trade
  100. Connection between: long-distance trade routes, knowledge of the environment and the technological adaptations?(600CE-1450CE)
    The trade depended on the environmental knowledge and technology changed to accommodate that knowledge.
  101. Major mirgrations to have an environmental impact/why?(600CE-1450CE)
    • Bantu speakers (Iron tech)
    • Sub-Saharan (Agricultural tech)
    • Polynesian (maritime migrations/transplants of food and animals)
  102. Language was affected by mirgrations/commercial contact through:
    Languages diffused/emerged
  103. The beliefs and practices of Islam were impacted by interactions between Arabs and _____________.(600CE-1450CE)
    Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians
  104. How/where did Islam expand between 600CE and 1450CE?
    Afro-Eurasia through military expansion, merchants and missionaries
  105. Important diasporic communities established along trade routes between 600CE and 1450CE?
    • Muslims (Indian Ocean)
    • Chinese (SE Asia)
    • Sogdian (C Asia)
    • Jewish (Mediterranena, Indian Ocean basin and Silk Roads)
  106. What do the writings of  interregional travelers between 600CE and 1450CE illustrate?
    Extent and limitaions of knowledge/understanding
  107. Most notable interregional travelers between 600CE and 1450CE?
    • Marco Polo
    • Ibn Battuta
    • Xuanzang
  108. Examples of cultural diffusion that occurred as a result of cross-cultural interactions between 600CE and 1450CE?
    Literature, artistic and cultural traditions
  109. Examples of scientific and technological exchanges that occurred because of cross-cultural interactions between 600CE and 1450CE?
    • Greek/Indian mathematics
    • Greek science/philosophy
    • Printing/gunpowder
  110. Role did trade play in the spread of epidemic disease? Examples?
    • Decreased pop. 
    • Half of Europe disappeared
  111. Examples of new foods and agricultural techniques that spread because of interregional trade and communication between 600CE and 1450CE?
    • Bananas in Africa
    • Rice varieties in E Asia
    • Cotton, sugar, citrus
  112. Dates/theme of the AP time period
    associated with the key concept “Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and their Interactions”?
    • Empires collapse/reconstituted;some new state forms emerged
    • 600-1450 CE
  113. Defining characteristics of state formation between 600 and 1450CE?
    • Traditional sources of power and legitmacy
    • Innovations
  114. New concept that Islam introduced to Afro-Eurasian statecraft?
    Caliphate: Head of Muslim community after Muhhamed
  115. Important “reconstituted” governments between 600 and 1450CE and what they combine in their state forms
    • Byzantine Empire, Chinese dynasties
    • Traditional sources of power/legitimacy with innovations (new methods of taxes, adapting religious institutions)
  116. Examples of Islamic states
    between 600 and 1450CE.
    Abassids, Muslim Iberia, Dehli Sultanates, Mongol Khanates
  117. Where new forms of government
    emerge between 600 and 1450CE?
    • Islamic states
    • Italian Peninsula
    • East Africa
  118. Examples of the synthesis of local and borrowed traditions between 600 and 1450CE.
    • Persian traditions in Islamic states
    • Chinese traditions in Japan
  119. Interregional contacts that encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers between 600 and 1450CE?
    • Tang China and Abbasids, Mongol empires
    • Steel, iron, silk, religions, gender roles
  120. Dates/theme of the AP time period associated with the key concept “Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange”?
    • Global interactions
    • 1450-1750
  121. Regions that experienced more regional trade networks between 1450 and 1750CE?
    • Indian Ocean
    • Mediterranean
    • Sahara
    • Overland Eurasia
  122. Where European technological developments in cartography and navigation came from?  List some examples. (1450-1750)
    • In classical, Islamic and Asian worlds 
    • New tools: revised maps
    • New ship designs: Caravels
  123. Characteristics of Chinese maritime reconnaissance between 1450 and 1750CE:
    More prestige: Now in Indian Ocean lead by Ming admiral Zheng He
  124. Characteristics of Portuguese maritime reconnaissance between 1450 and 1750CE:
    • Educ.=more travel to W Africa
    • Resulted in global trading post
  125. Characteristics of Spanish maritime reconnaissance between 1450 and 1750CE:
    Columbus=more interest in Atlanic/Pacific
  126. Characteristics of North Atlantic maritime reconnaissance between 1450 and 1750CE:
    For fish/settlements, increase from Euros
  127. Characteristics of Oceanic and Polynesian maritime reconnaissance between 1450 and 1750CE:
    Established trade/communication, little effect from uninterest
  128. Who is cited as having facilitated the global circulation of goods between 1450 and 1750CE?
    Royal chartered European monopoly companies
  129. Role silver played in the global economy between 1450 and 1750CE?
    • Took from Americas to purchase Asian products.
    • Spanish had leverage over Asia until Asia had all the silver and Spain had gone bankrupt.
  130. How regional markets in Afro-Eurasia continue to flourish between 1450 and 1750CE?
    commercial practices/new transoceanic shipping (made by Euros)
  131. What characterized European merchants’
    role in Asian trade?(1450-1750)
    Transporting goods
  132. New methods used by European rulers to control local/colonial economies?
    Mercantilism and joint-stock companies.
  133. Characterizes the Atlantic system between 1450 and 1750CE?
    Movement of goods/wealth/(un)free labor
  134. What is the Columbian Exchange?
    Connection between W and E hemisphere
  135. Diseases and vermin were transferred from Europe to the Americas?  What was the result?
    • Smallpox, measles, mosquitoes, rats
    • Endemic to American populations
  136. Foods and cash crops moved during the Columbian Exchange?  From where to where?
    • American foods/cash crops (potatoes, maize/tobacco, sugar) to Euro/Asia/Africa
    • Afro-Eurasia (fruit trees, grains, sugar) to Americas
  137. Domestic animals were part of the Columbian Exchange?
    Horses, pigs, cattle
  138. How the Columbian Exchange affect populations in Afro-Eurasia?
    Increased pop. from nutrients in American foods
  139. How European colonization affect the environments of colonized areas?  Why?
    Deforestation and soil depletion from physical demand on the environment to grow crops
  140. Cultural exchanges took place between 1450 and 1750CE?
    Religious and syncretic belief systems
  141. Syncretic and new forms of religion developed between 1450 and 1750CE?
    • Islam split (Sunni/Shi'a/Sufi), Christianity, Buddhism all spread
    • Syncretic: Vodun in Caribbean; Cults of saints in Latin America; Sikhism in S Asia
  142. Examples of innovations in visual and performing arts that occurred between 1450 and 1750CE?
    Renaissance art in Euro, mini paintings in Mid E/S Asia, woodblock prints in Japan
  143. Examples of popular authors and literary forms that accompanied the expansion of literacy between 1450 and 1750CE?
    Shakespeare, Cervantes, Kabuki
  144. Dates/ and the theme of the AP time period associated with the key concept “New Forms of Social Organization and Modes of Production”?
    • Creation, expansion and interactions of Economic Systems
    • 1450-1750
  145. Changes occurred in the area of peasant labor between 1450 and 1750?
    Intensified/demand increased
  146. Defining features of African slavery between 1450 and 1750?
    Still tradition for households and for exporting to Mediterranean/Indian Ocean
  147. Causation of demand for African slaves in the Americas?
    Plantation economy
  148. “coerced labor”?  List some examples.
    Chattel slavery, indentured servitude, hacienda, encomienda, mit'a
  149. New political and economic elite groups formed between 1450 and 1750?
    Ethnic, racial, gender
  150. Why did elites' power fluctuate 1450 and 1750?  List some examples.
    Ability to affect policies of powerful leaders.
  151. What notable gender and family restructuring occurred between 1450 and 1750?
    • Slave trades changed African demographics
    • Euro men needed S Asian women for trade
  152. Causation of new ethnic and racial classifications in the Americas?  List some examples of these new classifications.
    Demographic changes
  153. 2 primary ways rulers displayed power/legitimized their rule?  List some examples.
    • Arts (monuments, literature)
    • Religion (divine right, human sacrifice, Shiism)
  154. Trend characterized states’ treatment of different ethnic and religious groups between 1450 and 1750?  List some examples.
    Using ethnic/religious groups for econ. gain, but not challenging authority
  155. How rulers maintain centralized control over populations and resources between 1450 and 1750?
    Bureaucratic elites and military professions
  156. How did rulers generate revenue between 1450 and 1750?
    Tax farming and tribute collection
  157. What did imperial expansion rely upon between 1450 and 1750?
    Gunpowder, cannons and armed trade
  158. New trading posts established between 1450 and 1750? Other affected regions?
    • Africa, Asia 
    • West and Central Africa
  159. What land empires expanded dramatically between 1450 and 1750?
    Manchus, Mughals, Ottomans and Russians
  160. What European states established maritime empires in the Americas?
    Euro states: Portugal, Spain, Netherlands, France and Britain
  161. Examples of competition over trade routes that occurred between 1450 and 1750?
    • Omani-Euro rivals in Indian Ocean
    • State rivalries and local resistance
  162. Examples of state rivalries that occurred between 1450 and 1750?
    Thirty year war, Ottoman Safavid conflict
  163. Examples of local resistance that occurred between 1450 and 1750?
    Bread riots
  164. Dates /theme of the AP time period key concept “Industrialization and Global Capitalism”?
    Industry, capitalism, 1750-1900
  165. What made fossil fuel exploitation possible?  What types of fossil fuels were most commonly used between 1750 and 1900?
    Machines (steam/combustion engine) made coal and oil useable.
  166. The “____________________” revolution greatly increased the energy available to human societies.
    Fossil Fuel
  167. 2 important changes that occurred as a result of the development of the factory system?
    More specialized labor and more concentrated labor
  168. Where new methods of production spread from/to?
    From NW Europe to U.S. Japan, Russia, the rest of Europe
  169. When was the “second industrial revolution”?  What methods of production did it involve?
    Creation of new methods of production: Steel, chemicals, electricity, precision machines
  170. What led to new patterns of global trade further integration of the global economy between  1750 and 1900?
    Need for more raw material and new markets.
  171. Needs that led to growth of export economies specializing in "single natural resources" and what were the profits used for?
    Raw material, such as cotten, rubber, sugar and the profits went to purchasing finished goods
  172. Led to the decline of agriculturally based economies between 1750 and 1900?  Example?
    Development of indurstrial production
  173. The rapid development of industrial production encouraged industrialized states to seek out new ____________________________ for their finished goods.  Provide some examples:
    • consumer markets
    • Trying to open Chinese markets
  174. What led to the development of extensive mining centers between 1750 and 1900?  Examples?
    Need for specialized and limited metals for industrical production
  175. Who provided the ideological inspiration for economic changes between 1750 and 1900?
    Adam Smith and Johm Stuart Mill
  176. What “financial instruments” came into extensive use between 1750 and 1900?
    Stock markets, insurance, god standard, limited liablity corporations
  177. Major transportation and communication developments occurred between 1750 and 1900?
    Railroads, steamships, telegraphs and canals
  178. What gains did newly developed workers’ organization hope to achieve?
    Improve working conditions, limited hours, and higher wages.
  179. Why did some workers promote alternative visions of society?  Examples?
    • To oppose capitalist exploitation of workers. 
    • Utopian socialism, Marxism and anarchism
  180. Imperial governments from the era 1750-1900 resisted economic change and tried to stay pre-industrial?
    Qing China and Ottoman
  181. Examples of state-sponsored visions of industrialization?
    Econ reforms in Meiji Japan, factories and railroads in Russia
  182. Examples of reforms that some regions instituted in response to criticism of global capitalism?
    Pensions, health care, public education
  183. What new classes developed between
    1750 and 1900?
    Middle and industrial
  184. Changes occurred in family life and gender roles between 1750 and 1900?
    Family dynamics, gender roles, demographics
  185. Changes occurred as a result of rapid urbanization between 1750 and 1900?
    Unsanitary conditions, new forms of community
  186. Which states’ existing
    colonies were strengthened between 1750 and 1900?
    British, Dutch
  187. Which states established new empires throughout Asia and the Pacific between 1750 and 1900?
    European (British, Dutch, French, Germans, Russian, American)
  188. Which states’ influence declined between 1750 and 1900?
    Spanish and Portuguese
  189. Which states established settler colonies between 1750 and 1900?  Where?
    Brits in Africa/Australia/New Zealand, French in Algeria
  190. What economic practice did many powerful states employ outside of their established  empire between 1750 and 1900?  Examples?
    Economic Imperialism
  191. What influenced the emergence of Meiji Japan?
    U.S and Europe
  192. Who emulated European transoceanic imperialism between 1750 and 1900?
    U.S and Russia
  193. How was the Ottoman Empire affected by anti-imperial resistance? 
    It led to its contraction and independent states like Balkans
  194. Examples of states that developed at the edges of existing empires between 1750 and 1900?
    Chreokee nation, Siam, Hawai' and Zulu kingdom
  195. What new ideology helped to foster new communal identities between 1750 and 1900?  Examples?
    Spread of nationalism fostered new communal identities such as German nation, Filipino nationalism
  196. How was imperialism often justified?
    Racial ideologies and Social Darwinism
  197. What are the dates and the theme of
    the AP time period associated with the key concept “Nationalism, Revolution,
    and Reform”?
    1750-1900 Revolution and Rebellion
  198. Defining characteristics of enlightened thought and how did they affect politics?
    Questioning traditions made people question traditional government/practices
  199. Examples of “thinkers” (intellectuals) from the enlightenment era.  What did they encourage?  What did they critique?  What did their political ideas focus on?
    • Locke, Montesquieu
    • State of Nature
    • Ownership of land
  200. 3 important examples of revolutionary documents from the enlightenment era:
    • American Declaration of Independence
    • French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
    • Bolivar's Jamaica Letter
  201. Major social and political shifts did Enlightenment thinking inspire between 1750 and 1900?
    Challenging of existing notions of social relations
  202. Between 1750 and 1900,
    newly imagined national communities were built around a sense of commonality
    typically based on what four things?
    Language, religion, social customs, territory
  203. What centralized imperial governments witnessed rebellions/revolutions between 1750 and 1900?
    Qahhabi rebellion against the ottoman
  204. American colonial rebellions facilitated the emergence of independent states in what regions?
    U.S., Haiti, mainland Latin America
  205. What are the 4 major independence movements that occurred between 1750 and 1900?
    American Revolution, French Revolution, Haitian Revolution, Latin American independence movements
  206. What areas witnessed significant slave resistance between 1750 and 1900?
    Brazil, Cuba, Guyanas
  207. 2 anticolonial movements that occurred in Asia between 1750 and 1900?  What inspired these movements?
    Revoilt of 1957 and the Boxer Rebellion
  208. Name several important rebellions between 1750-1900 that were based on religious beliefs/millenarianism.
    Taiping Rebellion, Ghost Dance, xhosa Cattle killing Movement
  209. Examples of imperial reforms that were implemented in response increasing rebellions
    between 1750 and 1900?
    Tansimat movement, Self-Strengthening Movement
  210. New political ideologies were inspired by the rebellions of 1750-1900?
    Liberalism, socialism, communism
  211. Examples of the challenges to gender hierarchies between 1750 and 1900?
    Demands for women's suffrage: Mary Wollstonecrafts's "A vindication of the Rights of Women
  212. Dates/theme of the AP time period associated with the key concept “Global Migration”?
    Migration, 1750-1900
  213. What influenced migration between 1750 and 1900?
    Changes in demography (industrial and unindustrial)
  214. What contributed to global rise in population between 1750 and 1900?
    Food production and medical condition
  215. What influenced the significant global urbanization of the 19th century?
    Nature of new modes of transportation
  216. What sorts of individuals chose to relocate in search of work between 1750 and 1900?
    Manual laborersm specialized professionals
  217. What types of labor did the global capitalist community continue to rely on between 1750 and 1900?  List some examples.
    Coerced and semi coerced labor migration: Slavery, indentured servants and convict labor
  218. Examples of temporary/ seasonal migrants who returned to their home societies rather than
    permanently relocating.
    Japanese agricultural workers, Lebanese merchants, Italians
  219. Why did migrant workers of the 19th
    century tend to be male?  How did this
    change women’s roles in the home societies?
    The physical nature of the labor which allowed the women to stay home and fill previously male positions
  220. What are some examples of ethnic
    enclaves created by migrants in different parts of the world?
    Chinese in SE Asia, Caribbean, Americas, Indians in E  and S Africa
  221. What role did ethnic enclaves play
    in migrants’ lives?
    Bring their culture and create networks of migrant support
  222. What are some of the ways in which
    receiving societies reacted to immigrants?
    They tried to regulate the flow of people
  223. Dates/theme of the AP time period associated with the key concept “Science and the Environment”?
    • Acclerating Global Changes and Realignments
    • 1900-present
  224. What eliminated the problem of geographic distance between 1900 and the present day?
    Advanced transportation and communication
  225. What new scientific paradigms transformed human understanding of the world between 1900 and the present day?
    Theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, Big Band Theory, psychology
  226. What are the defining characteristics of the green revolution?
    More food and more chemically/genetically enhanced foods
  227. Examples of new technologies that raised productivity and increased the production of material goods between 1900 and the present day?
    Energy tech (oil, nuclear)
  228. What changed in the use of natural resources between 1900 and the present day?
    More competition and intensified usage.
  229. What major factors contributed to the global warming that occurred between 1900 and the present day?
    Greenhouse gases, pollution
  230. Name some environmental consequences of human’s changed relationship with the natural world between 1900 and the present day?
    Extinction, deforestation, desertification, air/water pollution
  231. What diseases are associated with poverty?
    Malaria, tuberculosis, cholera
  232. What diseases emerged as epidemics between 1900 and the present day?
    Influenza Ebola, HIV/AIDS
  233. What factors led to higher incidences of diseases like diabetes, heart disease, and alzheimer’s?
    Changing lifestyles and longer life spans
  234. What were some results of new forms of birth control that were developed between 1900 and the present day?
    More fertility control for women
  235. What factors led to increased levels of wartime casualties between 1900 and the present day?  List some examples.
    • Improved military tech
    • Tanks, airplanes, Atomic bombs, new tactics
  236. Which land-based empires collapsed in the twentieth century?  List some reasons.
    • Ottoman, Russian, Qing
    • Econ., social/political distress
  237. Which major colonies negotiated their  independence from the British Empire in the twentieth century?
    India and Gold Coast
  238. Which major colonies achieved their independence through armed struggle in the early twentieth century?
    Algeria, Vietnam and Angola
  239. What emerging ideologies contributed to the dissolution of empires and the restructuring of states in the early twentieth century?
  240. Name some examples of nationalist leaders challenged imperial rule between 1900 and the present day?
    In Asia/Africa: Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Kwame Nkrumah
  241. Name some examples of regional, religious, and ethnic movements that challenged both colonial rule and inherited imperial boundaries between 1900 and the present day?
    Muhammed Ali Jinna, the Québécois separaist movement and the Biafra secessionist movement
  242. Which transregional movements sought to unite people across national boundaries between 1900 and the present day?
    Communism, pan-Arabism, pan-Africanism
  243. What sorts of movements concerning land distribution developed between 1900 and the present day?
    Redistribution, sometimes about socialism and communism
  244. Which redrawn colonial boundaries led to population resettlements between 1900 and the present day?
    Indian/Pakistan partition, Zionist Jewish settlement of Palestine and division of the Middle East into mandatory states
  245. What trend helped maintain cultural and economic ties between former colonies and European metropoles after the disillusion of empires?
    Migration of former colonial subjects to imperial metropoles
  246. Name some examples of ethnic violence that occurred between 1900 and the present day.
    Armenia, Holocaust, Cambodia an Rwanda
  247. Which major examples of ethnic violence resulted in refugee populations between 1900 and the present day?
    Palestines and Darfurians
  248. What types of ideologies did
    governments use to mobilize their state’s resources for the purpose of waging
    war in the 20th century?
    Fascism, Nationalism, and communism
  249. What are some examples of governments recruiting people from colonies or former colonies for war efforts?
    Gurkha soldiers in India, ANZAC troops in Australia
  250. What types of strategies did governments use to mobilize populations in the 20th century?
    Political speeches, art, media, intensified forms of nationalism
  251. What are 6 primary sources of global conflict in the 20th century?
    • Imperialist expansion by European powers and Japan
    • Competition for resources
    • Ethnic conflict
    • Great Power rivalries between Great Britain and Germany
    • Nationalist ideologies
    • Economic crisis engendered by the great depression
  252. The global balance of economic and political power shifted after the end of ____________.
  253. What two nations emerged as super powers after WWII?  What conflict did they become involved in? This was a struggle between which two ideologies?
    U.S and Soviet Union
  254. What military alliances formed out of the Cold War?  What types of smaller wars did it encourage?  What ended it?
    • NATO, Warsaw pact
    • Proxy wars
    • Dissolution of USSR
  255. Name some examples of individuals who challenged war and promoted the practice of non-violence.
    Picasso, antinuclear movements, Thich Quang Duc, Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.
  256. Name some examples of individuals who opposed and promoted alternatives to existing economic and social orders.
    Vladimir Lenin and Mao Zedong
  257. Name some examples of militarized states who responded to the proliferation of conflicts in ways that intensified the conflicts.
    Military dictatorship of Chile, Spain, Uganda and U.S.'s promotion of a New World Order after cold war
  258. What are the dates and the theme of the AP time period associated with the key concept “New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society, and Culture”?
    New institutions of global governance, 1900 to present
  259. In which 20th century states did the government control the national economies?  Examples?
    Communist states of Soviet Union and China
  260. In which states did the governments play a minimal role in the economy in the early 20th century?  What major event changed this trend?
    • U.S, parts of Europe
    • The Great Depression
  261. What are some examples of newly independent states taking on a strong role in guiding economic life to promote development after WWII?
    Nasser's promotion of econ. development in Egypt, export oriented econ. in East Asia
  262. What are some examples of governments encouraging free market economic policies and promoting economic liberalization at the end of the twentieth century?
    U.S. under Reagan, Britain under Thatcher, China under Deng Xiaoping, Chile under Pinochet
  263. What facilitated the increasing interdependence of states, communities, and individuals in the 20th century?
    New international organizations
  264. List some examples of new international organizations that were formed to maintain world peace and facilitate international cooperation in the 20th century.
    League of Nations, United Nations
  265. List some examples of new economic institutions that sought to spread the principles and practices associated with free market economies throughout the world in the 20th century.
    IMF, World Bank, WTO
  266. List some examples of humanitarian organizations that developed to respond to humanitarian crises throughout the world in the 20th century.
    UNICEF, Red Cross, Amnesty International, Doctors without borders and the WHO
  267. List some examples of regional trade agreements that created regional trading blocs designed to promote the movement of capital and goods across national borders in the 20th century.
    European Union, NAFTA, ASEAN and Mercosur
  268. List some examples of multinational corporations that began to challenge state authority and autonomy in the 20th century.
    Royal Dutch Shell, Coca-cola, Sony
  269. List some examples of protest movements that protested the inequality of environmental and economic consequences of global integration in the 20th century.
    Greenpeace, Green Belt, Earth Day
  270. List some examples of human rights movements that gained traction throughout the world in the 20th century.
    UN declaration of Human rights, Women's rights, end of the White Australia Policy
  271. What were 2 results of increased interactions among diverse peoples in the 20th century?
    New cultural ID's, exclusionary reactions (xenophobia, race riots, citizenship restrictions)
  272. List some examples of new forms of spirituality and religious emphasis that developed in the 20th century.
    New Age Religions, Hare Krishna, Falun Gong
  273. What are some examples of popular culture that became global in the 20th century?
  274. Ziggurats
    Ancient Mespotamian towers/temples of rectangles of diminishing size, shrine on top
  275. Pictogram
    Pictoral symbol representing an object/concept
  276. Cuneiform
    Writing system used in ancient Near East from end of 4th millennium to 100BCE, Sumerians used it.
  277. Ideogram
    Character/figure representing idea instead of its name
  278. Bas-relief
    Sculpture with design barely standing out from background
  279. Hieroglyphs
    Characters in a writing system based on use of pictograms
  280. Mandate of Heaven
    Chinese concept:Ruler's power based on moral character determined by heaven.
  281. Master narrative
    Conventional, widely accepted view of historical record.
  282. Neolithic
    New stone age; domestication and metalurgy
  283. Innovation
    Similar cultural tech./objects found among diff. people independantly
  284. Diffusion
    Spread of ideas/objects/traits/etc. between cultures
  285. Zimbabwes
    Stone walled enclosures/ buildings in African Iron age.
  286. Hegemony
    Predominance of one unit over the others in a group. Lots of consent to rule by foreign governments
  287. Dominance
    Imposition of alien gov. by force. Opposite of hegemony
  288. Balance of power
    Policy to secure  peace by preventing a dominant power
  289. Satrapy
    Province or colony in the achaemenid/Persian empire ruled by a satrop or governer
  290. Deme
    Rural district/willage in ancient Greece
  291. Hoplite
    Heavily armed foot soldier of Greece
  292. Agora
    Central feature of ancient Greek town planning. Usually market/political meeting place
  293. Sophist
    Professor who'd teach multiple subjects for a fee: math, science, literature, ethnics
  294. Ecumene
    Greek word for inhabited world and designating a distinct cultural historical community
  295. Pax Romana
    "Roman Peace" state of comparatice concord within Rome
  296. Republic
    State of rule by an appointed person under constitution
  297. Patrician
    Man born into Roman family, aristocrat
  298. Plebian
    Citizen not part of patrician class
  299. Tribune
    Plebeian officer elected by plebeians to protect them
  300. Magistrate
    Officer elected by senate of Rome to admin the Republic
  301. Concul
    1 of 2 magistrates holding supreme civil/military authority
  302. Centuries
    Smallest unit of armies, 100 foot soldiers
  303. Dictator
    Elected at time of crisis with extraordinary power for ~6 months
  304. Patron-client relatinship
    Patron protects client, client provides service for patron
  305. Paterfamilias
    Male heads family until death
  306. Publicans/tax farmers
    Collected taxes but kept some themselves. Oppressed tax payers
  307. Bread and circuses
    Free food/entertainment to keep poor from politics
  308. Caesar Augustus
    Ruler or Emperor
  309. Triumvirate
    Literally association of 3 strong men
  310. Praetor
    Consul as leader of an army then in charge of justice
  311. Theme
    Military unit stationed in one province of the Byzantine Empire.
  312. Inconoclast
    Person who rejects the veneration of icons on the grounds that the practice is idolatrous
  313. Barbarians
    Greeks term for foreign/uncivilized people
  314. Legalism
    Pessimistic; social harmony only in strong gov. control
  315. Sinicization
    Adoption by foreign people of Chinese culture
  316. Assimilation
    Diff. ethnic group lose culture ID through contact of dominant society
  317. Indo-Aryan
    Subgroup of indo-Iranian branch of indo-euro group of language from Sanskrit.
  318. Janapada
    Large political district in India ~700BCe
  319. Guild
    Sworn association of people from some common purpse
  320. Tribals
    Aboriginal people of India outside of the caste system
  321. Mudra
    Hand gesture with specific meaning/significance
  322. Nirvana
    Blissful nothingness our souls return to
  323. Bodhisattra
    Being of wisdom, worthy of nirvana but chooses rebirth to aid the living
  324. Mantra
    Formula of uttering words/sounds believed to possess spiritual power
  325. Mandala
    Symbolic circular diagram of geometric shapes
  326. Syllabary
    writing system where each symbol represents a syllable of a word
  327. TaNaKh
    Herbrew for the 1st 5 books of bible written in Hebrew
  328. Diaspora
    Dispertion of people, commonly referring to Jews
  329. Lost ten tribes
    10 tribes that dispersed in 721 BCE and lsot their Jewish heritage/place in history
  330. Sacrament
    Christian rite/ritual which is an outward sign of spiritual grace
  331. Eucharist
    Central sacrament/act of worship in Christian church
  332. Speaking in tongues
    Mode of praying where words aren't understood but meaningful
  333. Neoplatonic
    Philosophy founded by Plontinas emphasizing transcendant impersonal/indefinable "one" as ground of all existance
  334. Heresy
    Belief tat is not in agreement with the official orthodoxy of its time/place
  335. Inconoclasm
    Movement to remove icons from orthodox worship
  336. Umma
    Community of Muslims regardless of ethnicity
  337. Daral-Islam
    Land of Islam where its religious laws are freely practiced
  338. Hija
    Migration of muhammed from Mecca to Medina
  339. Caliph
    Spiritual head of Muslim community
  340. Imam
    Islamic title for a person whose leadership/example is to followed
  341. Mohdi
    Messianic leader who'll restore justice, truth and religion before a Day of Judgement
  342. Sufi
    In Islam a member of one of the orders practicing mystical forms of worship
  343. Hadith
    Traditional records of deeds/utterances of Muhammed
  344. Ijtihad
    Method of Quranic interpretatoion
  345. Ulama
    Theological legal experts of Islam
  346. Tariqa
    Generic term meaning path
  347. Heliocentric
    Sun goes around earth
  348. Value added
    Increase of value from cost of raw materials
  349. Freemarket economy
    System where means of production are largely privae, little to no gov. control
  350. Supply and demand
    Commodity sold/quantity bought
  351. Moral econ
    Econ where goal is to provide basic needs for all before taking profits
  352. Trade diaspora
    Networks of international traders who relate to each other through bonds of their trade
  353. Silk route
    Rough roads/transport links across central Asia
  354. Lateen sails
    Triangular sail fixed to crossbar at 45 degrees capable of taking against the wind on either side
  355. Transhumance
    Pattern of seasonal migration
  356. Yurt
    Portable dwelling used by nomadic people of central Asia
  357. Renaissance
    Rebirth, refers to period of cultural/intellectual creativity in W euro
  358. Putting out system
    Employers provide employees raw material and orders for making finished product
  359. Ghetto
    Part of a city where a group is segregated/confined
  360. Medieval
    Middle period of Europe during renassiance
  361. Humanism
    Cultural movement initiated in W euro ~14 cent. Emphasis on study of humans
  362. Capitalism
    Econ. System characterized by private/corporate ownership of means of product, control price/distribution
  363. Mercantilism
    16th-18th cent euro policy to strengthen specific nations econ. by stockpiling reserves
  364. Conquistadors
    Spanish soldiers who invaded/conquered new world kingdoms especially in Mexico/Peru
  365. Ecomienda
    Concesssion from Spanish crown allowing colonists to collect tributes of Native Americans
  366. Repartismiento
    System of allowing colonists to get slave labor from natives
  367. Mit'a
    Forced labor systems in Peru originally under Inca, forcing a set number of Native slaves
  368. Hacienda
    Large rural estate in Spanish America
  369. Indulgences
    Catholic church remission for sins through good works/special prayers ~16th cent began to sell.
  370. Protestant reformation
    16th cent reformation of religins from Luther, Calvin and Henry VIII
  371. Spanish Inquisition
    Official search of Jews pretending to be christian/not properly christian observing people. Both illegal in Spain
  372. Bourse
    Stock exchange name in euro
  373. Asiento
    England's right from Spain to carry cargo from Africa to Spanish America
  374. Nation-state
    State with own gov./shared culture
  375. The other
    Term establishing a relationship between two parties defining themselves in contrast to each other
  376. Serf
    Farmer bound to a land/legally owned by a landlord
  377. Enlightened despotism
    Benevolent form of absolutism (ruler controls all) but efficent and humane
  378. Shogun
    Herediraty military dictator of Japan
  379. Samuri
    Hereditary warrior-aristocrat of Japanese society
  380. Demographics
    Quantitative study of humans pop.
  381. New Europes
    Lands conquered/explored by Euros
  382. Price Revolution
    Massive euro inflation 1400-1600
  383. Indentured labor
    Labor performed for a certain person for a set number of years
  384. Syncretism
    Mix of diff cultures
  385. Sikh
    Member of a religious community founded in the Punjab region of N India
  386. Divine right of kings
    Political doctrine saying monarch's power is from God
  387. Empiricism
    Theory that all knowledge originates in experience
  388. Sate of nature
    Mythical situation where people lived in anarchy
  389. Social contract
    Mythical code among early state of nature peoples as a form of government
  390. Enclosure acts
    1450-1640 English law converting public land into private
  391. Philsophes
    18th century writers emphasizied supremacy of human reason
  392. Bourgeoisie
    Inhabitants of walled towns between feudalism and rural peasentry
  393. Jacobins
    French revolutionary party 1789 later the most radical
  394. Girondins
    Mid. class moderate revolutionary group
  395. Montagnards
    Associated with Jacobins radical, artisans/shopkeepers, opposed Girondins
  396. Sansculottes
    Poorer/militant class called this because they wore trousers rather than knee breeches
  397. Congress of Vienna
    Representatives of leading countries, redrew borders, balance of power
  398. Vodoun (voodoo)
    Caribbean religion blending African/Catholic faiths
  399. Maroon
    Escaped slave who joins a free colony in the hills
  400. Mulatto
    Mixed race (Euro-African)
  401. Mestizo
    Mixed race (Euro-Indian)
  402. Creole
    White person from Spain
  403. Manzombo
    American born descendant of Portuguese
  404. Caudillo
    Military leader who takes political power
  405. Neocolonialism
    Control of one country by another through econ.
  406. Libertador
    Applied to leader of Independent revolts against Spain in Latin America.
  407. Industrical revolution
    Once: New tech in Euro, Now: Unprecedented transition in social organization/political/military power
  408. Agronomy
    Systematic concern with field crop production/soil management
  409. Cartel
    Association of independent businessmen deeming to control the supply of a particular commodity/group of commodities in order to regulate prices
  410. Finance captial
    Capital needed to finance new industry. Marked transition to age of larder business
  411. Iron law of wages
    Belief that more income=more children, 1900 reversed to more income-less children
  412. Family wages
    Wage earned by male, stable enough to support family, suggestion women belong in the home
  413. Domesticity
    Ideal valuing women who work at home/create safe have for husband
  414. White-collar job
    Professional/clerical job;office/clean work
  415. Corn laws
    Restricted import of food to England. Favored rural agriculture to urban consumers. repealed 1846
  416. Socialist
    Believed too much wealth goes to property owners/industry, too little to the workers
  417. Proletariat
    Collective noun designating working class that produces wealth
  418. Garden city
    Self-contained planned town combining work, residential, agricultural and recreational facilities and surrounded by a rural belt
  419. Nationalism
    Positive feeling of belonging to one's nation.
  420. Millet system
    Ottoman Empire's system of rule through religious communities
  421. Blood and iron
    Bismarck's policy of using warfare against enemies as a means of unifying a nation
  422. Pogrom
    Murderous attack on a group of people-usually based on ethnicity/religion that is (un)officially sanctioned by the gov.
  423. World system
    Theory saying core countries dominate/ control peripherial
  424. Social dawinism
    Dominant creatures deserve dominance
  425. White man's burden
    Concept saying white>others/must improve them
  426. Cultivation system
    System of Dutch rule over Indonesian agriculture, forcing peasents to give 20% of land to cash crops for exports.
  427. Great trek
    1834-41 Dutch established their own colony away from Irish because they were too liberal
  428. Mfecane
    Literally "time of troubles"
  429. Berlin Conference
    Convened by Bismarck of Germany to settle Euro disputes over African territory peacefully
  430. Scramble for africa
    Rush of Euros to colonize African territories assigned to them
  431. Nabob
    British trader/admin who grew rich in India
  432. Han
    Territory in Japan controlled by a feudal lord
  433. Eastern Ethics
    Western Science: Urging acceptance of W science/tech by favoring Japanese culture
  434. Revere the Emperor; expel the Barbarian
    Conservative position of rejecting everything western
  435. Meiji restoration
    Reforms in Japan under emperor Mutsuhito
  436. Scorched earth
    Strategy of defense where everything useful is destroyed
  437. Partisans
    Guerrilla warriors fighting against occupying armies
  438. D-day
    Military term for day of an important op.
  439. Gender
    Social attributes of being male or female in contrast to biological
  440. Genocide
    Act of murdering an entire people
  441. Superpower
    Term fro U.S and USSR
  442. Asymmetrical warfare
    Warfare between differently armed/equipped/stratigized groups
  443. Paper tigers
    Mocking comment from Chinese about U.S.'s refrain from nuking everything
  444. Pax america
    Describing relative peace in America
  445. Marshall plan
    American program of econ. assistance for noncommunist Euros
  446. Sphere of influences
    Geopolitical region one power is considered dominent in
  447. Iron curtain
    Churchill describes division of Euro by Soviets
  448. Containment
    Postwar policy to contain soviets
  449. Client state
    Econ/political/military dependent
  450. McCarthyism
    Strategy by calling opponents unpatriotic
  451. Gulag
    Chief admin of corrective labor camps founded by stalin
  452. Neocolonialism
    Assertion of power by one country over another
  453. Prague spring
    When Czechosloakia thought it'd be independent
  454. Brezhnev
    Doctrine 1968 Leonid Brezhnv declared intervention in any country trying to gain independence
  455. Domino effect
    Belief by american policymakers of one country becoming communist so will the others
  456. Third world
    Today: Poor countries Historically: Newly independent ones
  457. Nonaligned nations
    newly independent but out of Cold War countries
  458. Proxy war
    War between dependent client states
  459. Banana republic
    Country econ. dependent on one cash crop
  460. Sunset indstries
    Expected to decline
  461. Sunrise industries
    Expected to rise
  462. Asian tigers
    Asian countires doing well in the last 2 decades
  463. NGO's
    Non-governmental organizations
  464. Green revolution
    Revolution in agriculture production brought about by new hybrid seeds
  465. Soviet
    Chinese Soviets, gov. councils of peasents/rural
  466. Barefoot doctors
    paramedics for basic levels of medicine in rural areas
  467. Brain washing
    W term for Chinese methods of group pressure/psychological coercion to extract confessions
  468. Hundred flowers campaign
    Mao inviting people to speak their minds then arresting them
  469. Great Leap Forward
    China building econ. on small/local/rural communities
  470. Cultural revolution
    Basing econ on rural/ignoring intelligence/culture
  471. Outcaste
    Person out of the caste system
  472. Realpolitik
    German word for practical politics
  473. Gentrifitcation
    Return of wealthy to rundown parts of cities to invest/revitalize
  474. habeas corpus
    Old principle requiring governments/agents to present accused in detention/state charges
  475. Economic liberalism
    Today refers to free market, capitalistic economy with little gov. intervention
  476. Ayatollah
    Title of pprestigious and powerful Muslim religious leaders in Iran
  477. Theocracy
    System of government based religious beliefs and texts and headed by religious leaders
  478. Wahabi
    Islam, following very strict conservative teachings.
  479. Al-Qaeda
    Militant Islamic group
  480. Ethnic cleansing
    Euphemism for genocide.
  481. Hindutva
    Political religious slogan calling for merger of Hindu religion with power of Indian state
  482. Palestinians
    Arab residents in territories along Mediterranean and Jordan River (W). No legal citiznship in Israel or other states.
  483. Liberation theology
    Movement in Catholic church combining social concerns of Marxism with Christian gospel focusing on poor.
  484. Evangelical christianity
    Forms of Protestant Christianity that emphasize the literal truth and authority of the bible.
  485. Penetecostals
    Christians who stress a direct personal experience to God, Jesus and the revelation rather than the authority of scripture or of the church hierarchy
  486. Globalization
    How people, institutions and nations are brought into unified networks of interaction
  487. Outsourcing
    Buying goods and services from far away from where they'll be used.
  488. Autarky
    Econ. system based on self-sufficiency
  489. Equity
    Condition where participants in a system think it's fair but it isn't really.
  490. Protectionism
    Policy of protecting domestic production from external competition
  491. Transparency
    Quality of marketing public and clear the transactions of gov/private enterprise
  492. Privatization
    Act of selling off gov. owned enterprises
  493. Intifada
    Act of shaking off/rebellion
  494. Micro-finance or micro credit
    Provision of small loans to small scale businesspeople.
  495. Schengen agreement
    Set common, restrictive rules limiting immigration and importation
  496. Fortress Europe
    Negative designations applied by potential immigrants who were denied entrance to Europe
  497. Political asylum
    Individual cases of someone fearing they will be killed if they return to their countries.
  498. Hybridization
    The mixing of cultures to produce new forms.
  499. Chinese dynasties (in order)
    Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han, Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic of China, People's Republic of China (Mao Zedong)
  500. Three African Empires
    Ghana (600-1235), Mali (1235-1464) and Songhai (1464-1700)
  501. Liberalism
    political theory stressing individualism: beginnings in w Europe that rejects authoritarian government and defends freedom of speech, association, and religion, and the right to own property
  502. Before 600BCE most early civilizations had
    Urban centers, growing populations and writing systems
  503. The Mughal Empire was
    • Made up of Muslims
    • Around in the fourth time period (1526-1757)
    • In India
    • Had Roads, uniform currancy
    • Had strong resistance against it
    • Had Emperors
  504. The Ottoman Empire
    • Had little resistance against it
    • Had a Sultan or emperor
    • Ended the Byzantine Empire
  505. Important reason of pop. growth in China during 17th and 18th centuries
    American Crops
  506. What did the N and S American revolutions share?
    Revolutionary demands based on enlightenment political ideas
  507. Enlightenment period
    • philosophical, intellectual and cultural movement of 17th/18th centuries.
    • Stressed reason, logic, criticism and freedom of thought over dogma, blind faith and superstition
  508. National Atlanic Treaty Organization (NATO) came from
    The Cold War
  509. Why is the 20th century considered a break in World History?
    • Use of petroleum/humans' interaction with the environment.
    • Pop. increase from 1.6 billion to 6.1 billion
    • New communist states in China and Russia
  510. The Mughals and Ottomans both
    • Had Emperors
    • Expanded with the use of gunpowder and extensive bureaucracies
  511. The Dehli Sultanate
    Relied primarily on sea routes to participate in the silk trade across Asia
  512. Simon Bolivar was trying to
    Influence the Creole elites with his Jamaica Letter
  513. Difference between chinese and india social structures
    Confucian social hierarchies privildged government officials
  514. What suggests Europeans didn't control the largest share of world trade in the 17th/18th centuries?
    European trading companies backing long distance trade with military force
  515. U.S. Declaration of Independance and French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen both reflect
    A concern for the protection of private property
  516. Have a DBQ essay that
    • Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with evidence from the documents
    • Uses all of the documents.
    •  Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible. Does not simplysummarize the documents individually.
    • Takes into account the sources of the documents and analyzes the authors’ points of view.
    •  Identifies and explains the need for at least one additional type of document