TechIV- Mice (Anatomy, Uses in LAR)

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TechIV- Mice (Anatomy, Uses in LAR)
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2013-03-14 19:04:17
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Mice- Anatomy, Uses
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  1. what is the scientific name for a mice?
    Mus musculus
  2. what order are mice in?
    rodentia
  3. what family are mice in?
    maridae
  4. what are the 2 most common colors of mice?
    which is more common?***
    • ***albino
    • black
  5. that are the 4 main strains of mice used in research?
    • outbred
    • inbred
    • congenic
    • transgenic
  6. what are outbred strains?
    what do they mimmick?
    • strains from random breeding to create genetic variety
    • mimmicks a human population
  7. what are the problems with using an outbred strain for research?
    • with genetic variety comes result variety
    • genetic dzs are present
  8. genetically, outbred strains are ______
    heterozygous
  9. what are inbred strains?
    • result of a single family mating
    • 20 generations
  10. inbred strains are _____
    Isogenic
  11. what is a BALB/c strain?
    albino- inbred
  12. what is a C57BL strain?
    black- inbred
  13. what are the benefits with using inbred strains?
    • low variations of genetics=low variations of research results
    • consistency!
  14. what are congenic strains?
    animals different @ one particular locus?
  15. what are transgenic strains?
    micro inj. of DNA into mouse eggs for production of specific disease models
  16. what are mutant strains?
    ex?
    • inbred types of mice
    • ex: Nude mice/rats
  17. what is the difference between nude mice and normal mice?
    • they lack a thymus
    • (T cells=immunocompromised)
  18. what is SCID?
    severe compromised immuno-deficiency
  19. what do SCIDs lack?
    • B & T cells
    • pretty much dont have an immune system
  20. what are the 5 types of ecological types of mice?
    (ggscs)
    • germ free (axenic)
    • Gnotobiotic
    • (SPF) Specific Pathogen Free
    • Conventional
    • Sentinel animals
  21. axenic-
    • completely germ free, contain no detectable microflora***
    • normal flora too!
  22. Gnotobiotic-
    Associated with a known micro flora
  23. how are gnotobiotic created?
    giving normoflora to an axenic pt
  24. which Ecological type is most common?
    SPF
  25. SPFs-
    • free of specific pathogens
    • (have normal flora, no bad bacteria/dzs)
  26. conventional animals-
    • animals w. undefined microflora
    • no serology testing or specific breeding
    • (normal pet, normal animal)
  27. sentinel animals-
    • healthy animal is placed in a room w. other animals to detect presence of a dz
    • "sent in kennel" as quality control
  28. what happens to sentinel animals every 3 months?
    euthanized and tested completely for disease
  29. what type of animals are usually used as sentinel animals?
    small animals
  30. short life spans
    can study generations over a short pd time
    short gestation
    large litter size
    great genetic diversity
    inexpensive
    maintenance is easy
    toxicity testing
    reasons for mice being used so frequently in lab animal research
  31. what is the life span of a mouse?
    1-3 years
  32. what is the gestational pd of mice?
    19-21 days
  33. what are the cons of toxicity testing?
    large numbers of animals needed
  34. mice are _____ animals and can be housed in groups.
    social
  35. what mice should be housed alone?
    male mice
  36. what is barbering?
    when a dominant mouse in a group removes the facial hair from all other mice in the cage
  37. what are two reasons for barbering?
    what are two solutions to stop barbering?
    • boredom and dominance
    • remove barbor from the cage or provide more enrichment
  38. what is the clinical significance with boredom?
    • boredom causes stress
    • stress causes cortisol
    • cortisol decreases immune function
  39. what does iacuc require that the mice have in their cage?
    • nestlets
    • huts/housing
  40. mice have a ____ developed sense of smell
    highly
  41. mice have _______ hearing
    sensitive
  42. mice have ______ eyesight
    poor
  43. what is the norm. body temp of a mouse?
    98-101.F
  44. what is the norm. HR?
    300-750bpm
  45. what is the normal RR?
    70-120bpm
  46. what is the weaning age?
    21-28 days
  47. how are mice supposed to be initially handled?
    base of the tail
  48. what can happen if the tail is gripped towards the tip?
    degloving
  49. what is degloving/tail slip?
    what is the tx?
    • skin seperates from the muscle
    • euthanasia usually
  50. what is the decapicone?
    piece of plastic that fits the entire mouseused w. people that cannot make a fist
  51. what is the dental formula for mice?
    • 2
    • I 1/1
    • C 0/0
    • P 0/0
    • M 3/3
  52. what causes the incisors to change color?
    age
  53. what color do teeth change w. age?
    yellow/orange
  54. open rooted-
    • continuously grow
    • hypsodonic dentition
  55. ______ may prevent normal wear of the teeth
    malocclusion
  56. _____ may be necessary for malocclused teeth
    clipping or cutting
  57. what tool is preferred for cutting of the teeth?
    what is it similar to?
    • dental burr
    • dremel
  58. do molars continuously grow?
    no!
  59. what are the 2 uses for tails?
    • thermoregulation- release heat, cannot sweat
    • balance
  60. what is the most common type of tumor in mice?
    mammary
  61. what are the common locations for mammary tumors?
    • belly
    • shoulders
    • flank
  62. what may be used for sexing?
    nipples
  63. how many mammary glands do they usually have?
    • 5 pairs
    • 3 thoracic
    • 2 abdominal
  64. males have open ______
    this means they can _______
    • inguinal canals
    • retract their testicles
  65. males also have a _____ similar to a dog
    os penis
  66. what are the predominant WBCs in mice?
    lymphocytes
  67. what is the urine of mice like?
    highly concentrated with high protein content
  68. what does the conc. of urine mean for maintenance?
    • ammonia
    • cleaning at least once a week
  69. what are reactive lymphocytes seen with?
    lymphosarcoma or recent vaccine
  70. what do reactive lymphos look like?
    • larger
    • dark
  71. harderian gland-
    lacrimal type of gland
  72. what do harderian glands secrete?
  73. parphyrin-
    red staining tears from stress
  74. what is the term for red tears?
    chromodacryorrhea
  75. how long is the estus cycle?
    4-5 days
  76. what kind of ovulators are mice?
    spontaneous ovulators
  77. what gets secreted by the female after mating?
    how long after mating can this be seen?
    in what setting might this be important?
    • copulatory plug
    • 12-36 hours after
    • when breeding mice
  78. what happens 24 hours after parturition?
    postpartum estrus
  79. what kind of nest is built for the pups?
    when are they born?
    • shallow
    • at night
  80. what is the average litter size?
    10-12
  81. when should the cage be cleaned and food/water replaced with a pregnant mouse?
    a week before parturition
  82. how do you age pups?
    based on hair coat and if their eyes are open
  83. when does their hair start growing?
    1 week
  84. when do their eyes open?
    2 weeks
  85. what is the whitten effect?
    group or one female is exposed to a male, the majority will be in estrus by the 3rd night
  86. what is the Bruce effect?
    pregnant female will abort the litter she has within 48 hours of copulation if exposed to another male
  87. what is the Lee Boot effect?
    if female is bred during post partum estrus, they will have an extended gestation
  88. what are the 2 parts of their one stomach?
    • glandular part
    • aglandular part
  89. coprophagy-
    reason?
    • ingesting feces
    • recycle B vitamins that are excreted with the bacteria in their colon
  90. mice cannot ______
    vomit
  91. what prevents mice from vomiting?
    limiting ridge
  92. what kind of fat do mice have a good amount of?
    where is it located?
    • brown fat
    • between shoulders and around kidneys
  93. what does brown fat store energy as?
    glycogen
  94. how much energy is provided by brown fat when compared to normal fat?
    10x the amount from brown fat! :D

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