Cell Bio 2 Exam 2 L21: Neural Plasticity Intro
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Describe the phases of neuronal development
- genesis of neurons: time and place of birth dictates indentity
outgrowth of axons and dendrites: pioneering with guidance cues
refinement of synaptic connections: strengthening connections
Describe the structure of a neuron.
axon hillock: checkpoint where inputs converge and an action potential either fires or doesn't
inputs are received at the cell body and the dendrites
the axon terminal connects to the downstream target
- <1 um long
- synapse with neighboring axons
axonal growth cone
- looks like a club
- "...like a club or a battering ram...allowing to circumvent obstacles...[to reach] its destination..."
What are the synaptic structure and molecular components?
presynapse: synaptic signal originates here
synaptic vesicles: hold neutrotransmitter, releases the neurotransmitters when there's an action potential, allows communication
post synaptic density: area of specialization
post synapse: recieves synaptic output
- excitatory transmitter: glutamate
- inhibitory transmitter: GABA
- glutamate receptors: AMPA and NMDA
define afferent and efferent
- afferent: away from target
- efferent: toward target
define contralateral and ipsilateral
- contralateral: target opposite of midline
- ipsilateral: target on same side as midline
What is the fundamental task of a neuron?
to receive, integrate, and transmit electrochemical signals
action potential: traveling wave of electrical excitation
What is resting membrane potential?
What is threshold potential?
Describe patch clamping and its uses
- patch clamping may be used to study a particular ion channel or the total membrane potential in a cell
the ability of neuronal synapses to modulate the strength and/or presence of synaptic communication
Define long term potentiation and long term depression.
both occur over periods of time > 1 hour
long term potentiation: sustained facilitation of the connection between two neurons
long term depression: sustained decrease in the electrical connection between two neurons
explain ocular dominance columns
one eye is injected with a dye (a radiolabel tracer) - the dye is taken up by neurons of the primary visual cortex
interdigitated regions from opposite eyes
columns begin diffuse - refinement sharpens definition
explain monocular deprivation
common experimental technique - equivalent to wearing an eye patch
deprive one eye of light
light bands = non deprive eye
reveals competition - deprived eye (dark bands) shrink, dominance of non-deprived eye
occurs when the gaze of the eyes is not in register - therefore each eye sees a different image
experimentally accomplished by making the ocular muscles of one eye ineffective
- reveals refinement based on activity synchronization
- -neurons link with high selectivity to areas served by the controlled eye
- -column interfaces do not correspond to the same region
- -columns are wider more clearly defined
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