Urinary System Medical Terms

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Urinary System Medical Terms
2013-03-17 11:27:55
Urinary System Medical Terms

Urinary System Medical Terms
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  1. cyst/o

  2. glomerul/o
  3. meat/o
    opening, meatus
  4. -cele
    hernia, swelling
  5. nephr/o; ren/o
  6. pyel/o
    renal pelvis
  7. ur/o, urin/o
    urine, urinary tract
  8. ureter/o
  9. urethr/o
  10. -emia
    blood condition
  11. azot:
    nitrogenous compounds
  12. -iasis
    abnormal condition (produced by something specified)
  13. -lysis
    separation; destruction; loosening
  14. -pexy
    fixation of an organ
  15. -ptosis
    prolapse, downward displacement
  16. -tripsy
  17. -uria
  18. poly-
    many, much
  19. azotemia
    toxic condition caused by the kidney's failure to remove urea from the blood
  20. cytoscoply
    used to diagnose urinary tract disorder, obtain tissue and urine samples, excise tumors, or inject a contrast medium into the bladder
  21. glomerulus
    • cluster of capillaries forming the structural and functional unit of the kidney known as the nephron.
    • Glomerular capillaries filter fluid, the first step in urine formation
  22. aden/o
  23. carcin/o
  24. enter/o
    intestine (usually small intestine)
  25. erythr/o
  26. gastr/o
  27. hemat/o
  28. hepat/o
  29. lith/o
    stone, calculus
  30. noct/o
  31. olig/o
  32. py/o
  33. rect/o
  34. scler/o
    hardening; sclera (white of eye)
  35. ven/o
  36. -rrhaphy
  37. -ectasis
    dilation, expansion
  38. -emesis
  39. -grade
    to go
  40. -gram
    record, writing
  41. pepsia
  42. supra
    above, excessive, superior
  43. Urinary system composed of...
    kidneys, ureters, bladder & urethra
  44. what is the purpose of the urinary system?
    regulate the volume and composition of fluids in the body and remove waste substances and excess fluid from the blood
  45. main function of kidneys
    regulate the amount of water in the body and keep the body fluids at a constant concentration and acid-base level. 

    Achieve this by filtering blood and excreting waste substances and excess water as urine.  Other essential substances are reabsorbed into the bloodstream by REABSORPTION.
  46. why is homeostasis necessary?
    stable environment is necessary for the cells of the body to survive and carry out their functions effectively
  47. kidney dialysis
    artificial kidney that filters impurities out of blood
  48. urologists
    treats disorders of the female and male urinary systems.

    Also the male reproductive system
  49. nephrologists
    diagnosis and manage kidney disease, kidney transplantation and dialysis therapies
  50. vesicocele
    hernial protrusion of urinary bladder
  51. kidney stone (nephrolith or renal calculus)
    vary in size from microscopic (sand or gravel) to large enough to block the ureter or fill the renal pelvis

    leads to nephritis & nephralgia
  52. abnormal condition of kidney stone
  53. renal hypertenstion
    produced by kidney disease

    most common type of hypertension caused by glomerulonephritis or renal artery stenosis
  54. nephrotic syndrome
    • group of symptoms:
    • -chronic loss of protein in urine proteinuria
    • (leads to depletion of body protein, especially albumin)
    • -albumin (and other serum proteins) maintain fluid within the vascular space. 
    • -when levels of proteins are low, fluid leaks from blood vessels into tissues, resulting in edema
  55. Characteristic of nephrotic syndrome
    edema, especially around ankles, feet, and eyes
  56. fluid retention
    excess fluid in tissues
  57. What is prescribed to control edema and stimulate flow of urine?
    Diuretic drugs (coffee is one)

    • edema around ankles and feet may be due to high sodium diet.
    • -physician may prescribe low-sodium diet
  58. What causes nephrosclerosis?
    hypertension - arteriosclerosis causes thickening of renal blood
  59. incision to remove a kidney stone
  60. what causes the prolapse of a kidney?
    nephroptosis (floating kidney) can be caused by birth defect or injury

    downward displacement may occur because the kidney supports are weakened due to sudden strain or blow
  61. fixation of kidney
  62. path of urine from kidney to...
    • ureters
    • urinary bladder
    • urethra
    • urinary meatus
  63. ureterectasis
    dilation/expansion of ureter
  64. crushing of a stone or calculus
  65. what causes ureteritis?
    • infection or
    • mechanical irritation of a stone
    • -(ureterolith)
  66. abnormal condition (produced by something specific) of a ureteral stone
  67. incision of ureter to remove a stone
  68. what causes ureterectasis?
    dilation/exapansion of ureter
    • -renal calculi get trapped in the ureter THEN
    • -urine is blocked causing pressure on the walls of the ureter
  69. urinary bladder is a muscular sac
    stores urine until voided
  70. special instrument for examining the ureter and bladder
  71. what is a hernia?
    protrusion of an anatomical structure through the wall that normally contains it
  72. what is a cystocele?
    herniation of urinary bladder through the vaginal wall caused by weakened pelvic muscles

    develops over years as vaginal muscles weaken and can no longer support the weight of urine in the bladder.

    causes urinary retention in the part of the bladder that pouches into the vagina

    may be caused by childbirth or age

    usually occurs after a woman has delivered several infants and elderly persons because of weakened pelvic muscles
  73. what is a rectocele?
    herniation of the rectum toward the vagina through weakened vaginal muscles
  74. cystoscope
    inserted through the urethra to examine the urinary bladder

    has optical lighting system, special lenses and mirrors

    can obtain biopsy specimens and remove tumors and small stones (video attachment can be used to create a permanent visual record)

    catheters may be placed through the cystoscope to obtain urine samples and to inject a contrast medium into bladder during radiography
  75. 2 common UTI in women
    cystitis and urethritis
  76. what is urethral stricture?
    narrowing of the lumen (tubular space) caused by scar tissue

    results in diminished urinary stream and causes UTIs because of urinary flow obstruction

    • -commonly results when catheters or surgical instruments are inserted into the urethra
    • -other causes are untreated gonorrhea and congenital abnormalities.
  77. visual examination of urethra and bladder
  78. ia
  79. benign tumors
    • do not invade surrounding tissue
    • contained within a capsule
    • only harmful when they place pressure on adjacent structures
  80. malignant tumors
    • spread rapidly
    • invasive
    • life-threatening
  81. what is the most common renal tumor?
    adenocarcinoma (malignant glandular tumor)
  82. adenoma
    benign glandular tumor composed of tissue from which it is developing
  83. what are nephrons?
    microscopic filtering units of the kidneys

    designed to filter urea and other waste products from blood

    nephrons are also responsible for maintaining homeostasis (keeping body fluids in balance)
  84. where is urine collected?
    calyces (funnel shaped extension) and then emptied into the renal pelvis and through the ureters.
  85. another word for urination
  86. pyelitis
    inflammation of renal pelvis
  87. what are the 1 million microscopic filtering units in each kidney that are designed to form urine in the process of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion?
  88. What does each nephron contain?
    glomerulus, collecting tubule, bowman capsule

    nephrons maintain homeostasis in the body by selectively removinig waste products from blood by forming urine
  89. glomerulus
    tiny ball of coiled, intertwined capillaries

    surrounded by the bowman capsule
  90. collecting tubule
    convey newly formed urine to the renal pelvis where it is excreted by the kidneys
  91. glomerulonephritis
    inflammatory disease of the kidney that involves the glomerulus primarily

    • hypertension, oliguria, electrolyte imbalances and edema
  92. oligo
  93. renal pelvis
    funnel shaped dilation that drains urine from the kidney into the ureter
  94. pyelography
    radiographic study of kidney, ureters and bladder after injection of a contrast agent
  95. KUB
    Kidney ureter bladder - radiographic examination

    determines urinary tract abnormalities - tumors, swollen kidneys, & calculi

    identifies location, size, shape and malformation of the kidneys, ureters and bladder
  96. IVP
    • intravenous pyelography
    • pyelogram, urogram: image produces

    -provides multiple radiographic images of the renal pelvis and urinary tract after injection of a contrast medium. 

    • -provides detailed information about the structure and function of the entire urinary tract; kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra
    • - used to identify nephroliths and ureteroliths
  97. retro
    backward, behind
  98. grade
    to go
  99. RP
    retrograde pyelography

    radiographic images taken after contrast medium is injected through a urinary catheter (and cystoscope) directly into the urethra, bladder, and ureters

    useful in locating urinary tract obstruction
  100. nephroscope
    fiberoptic instrument used to visualize kidney and disintegrate & remove renal calculi
  101. what happens to renal pelvis when the physician inserts a nephroscope
  102. what is a bacterial infection of the renal pelvis and kidney caused by bacterial invasion from the middle and lower urinary tract or bloodstream?

    bacteria may gain access into the bladder via the urethra and ascend to the kidney

    -can be extremely dangerous for pregnant women because it can cause premature labor
  103. 4 common types of hernias
    cysto, urethro, recto, entero
  104. urotoxin
    poisonous substance in urine
  105. discharge of pus
  106. abnormal condition of pus from kidney
  107. what is a common diagnostic test that provides early detection of renal disease?
    urinalysis - look for blood, pus or other chemicals properties

    physical, chemical microscopic evaluation of urine
  108. without urine
  109. what is an enlargement of the kidney due to constant pressure from backed-up urine in the ureter?

    caused by stricture, tumor, or stone in proximal part of ureter

    causes pain, hematuria, and pyuria

    • when obstruction occurs in the distal part of the ureter, the condition is called
    • hydroureter with hydronephrosis
  110. pyuria
    • pus in urine
    • excessive number of white blood cells in urine
    • sign of UTI
  111. PKD
    polycystic kidney disease

    abnormal condition where kidneys are enlarged and contain many cysts

    kidney failure commonly develops over time which requires dialysis or kidney transplantation
  112. incontinence
    uncontrolled loss of urine from the bladder

  113. cystitis
    inflammatory condition caused by bacterial infection

    characterized by pain, frequent urination, sometimes hematuria

    more common in women due to shorter urethra & closeness of urethra to the anus

    urinalysis reveals bacteriuria and pyuria
  114. pyelonephritis
    inflammation of the renal pelvis and the kidney

    common type of kidney disease and a frquent complication of cystitis
  115. glomerulonephritis
    form of nephritis in which lesions involve primarily the glomeruli

    may result in proteinuria & hemturia
  116. ARF
    acute renal failure

    condition that impairs flow of blood to the kidneys, such as shock, injury, or exposure to toxins
  117. what occurs when salts in the urine precipitate (settle out of solution and grow in size)?

    stone must be excreted or crushed
  118. ESWL

    sound vibrations to break up calculi in urinary tract or gallbladder

    US is uwed to locate and monitor stones as they are being destroyed.
  119. Azoturia
    increase of nitrogenous substances, especially urea, in urine

    (may be called uremia)
  120. diuresis
    increased formation and secretion of urine

    di: double
  121. dysuria
    painful or difficult urination, symptomatic of cystitis and other urinary tract conditions
  122. ESRD (also called CRF)
    end stage renal disease (chronic renal failure)

    kidney disease that advanced to the point that kidneys can no longer adequately filter the blood.  Requires dialysis or renal transplantation for survival
  123. enuresis
    involuntary discharge of urine after the age that bladder control should be established

    (bed-wetting or nocturnal enuresis)
  124. hypospadias
    abnormal congenital opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis
  125. spadias
    slit, fissure
  126. interstitial nephritis
    pathological changes in the renal interstitial tissue that may be primary due to a toxic agent (drug).

    results in destruction of nephrons and severe impairment of renal function
  127. renal hypertension
    high BP that results from kidney disease
  128. uremia
    elevated level of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood as occurs in renal failure (aka azotemia)
  129. Wilms tumor
    malignant neoplams of the kidney that occurs in young children (under 5)

    early signs: hypertension, palpable mass, pain, hematuria
  130. BUN
    blood urea nitrogen - lab test that measures the urea (nitrogenous waste product) in blood and demonstrates the kidney's ability to filter urea from the blood for excretion in urine

    increase in BUN indicates impaired kidney function
  131. CT
    computed tomography

    -radiographic technique that uses a narrow beam of x-rays that rotates in a full arc around the patient.  multiple view produce cross-sectional images of that body part

    used to diagnose kidney, ureter, bladder tumors, cysts, inflammation, abscesses, perforation

    with or without contrast medium
  132. renal scan
    nuclear medicine imaging procedure that determines renal function and shape through measurement of a radioactive substance thats injected intravenously and concentrates in the kidney
  133. VCUG
    voiding cystourethrography

    radiography of bladder and urethra after filling the bladder with a contrast medium and during the process of voiding urine
  134. catheterization
    • insertion of catheter into body cavity to instill or remove a substance. 
    • 2 types of catheters: straight & indweeling
  135. renal (or kidney) transplantation
    organ transplant of a kidney in a patient with endstage renal disease
  136. dialysis
    mechanical filtering process used to cleanse blood of high concentration of metabolic waste products, draw off excess fluids, and regulate body chemistry when kidneys fail to function properly

    hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis
  137. hemodialysis
    removes excess fluids and toxins from the blood by continually shunt the patient's blood from the body into a dialysis machine for filtering and then returning the clean blood to the patient's body via tubes connected to the circ system
  138. peritoneal dialyis
    patient's own peritoneum is used as the dialysis membrane

    dialyzing fluid passes through a tube into the peritoneal cavity and remains there for a prescribed period.  During this time, wastes diffuse across the peritoneal membrane into the fluid.  Contaminated fluid then drains out and is replaced with fresh solution

    repeated as often as required and may be continuous or intermittent