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- attack, or an insult, on the person, rather than directly addressing
- the person's reasons.
- the assumption that a proposed step will set off an uncontrollable
- chain of undesirable events, when procedures exist to prevent such a
- chain of events
- assuming that because part of a problem would remain after a solution
- is tried, the solution should not be adopted.
- key word is used with two or more meanings in an argument such that
- the argument fails to make sense once the shifts in meaning are
- An attempt to
- justify a claim by appealing to sentiments that large groups of
- people have in common; falsely assumes that anything favored by a
- large group is desirable.
- Supporting a
- conclusion by citing an authority who lacks special expertise on the
- issue at hand.
of appeal to emotions(
- use of emotionally charged language to distract readers and listeners
- from relevant reasons and evidence. Common emotions appealed to are
- fear, hope, patriotism, pity, and sympathy.
- distorting our
- opponent's point of view so that it is easy to attack; thus we attack
- a point of view that does not truly exist.
- Assuming only two
- alternatives when there are more than two.
Explaining by Naming
- Falsely assuming
- that because you have provided a name for some event or behavior you
- have also adequately explained the event.
- use of vague, emotionally appealing virtue words that dispose us to
- approve something without closely examining the reasons.
- irrelevant topic is presented to divert attention from the original
- issue and help "win" an argument by shifting attention away
- from the argument and to another issue. The fallacy sequence in tis
- instance is as follows: (a) Topic A is being discussed; (b) Topic B
- is introduced as though it is relevant to Topic A, but it is not; (c)
- Topic A is abandoned.
- argument in which the conclusion is assumed in the reasoning.
- similar to, and
- sometimes part of, an ad