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having excess of body fat that adversely affects health
Morbid obesity (2)
-body weight exceeding 100% of normal
-creates a very high risk for serious health complications
3 ways to check weight is healthful
-determining the BMI
-measuring body composition
-asessing pattern of fat distribution
4 limitations of BMI
-no indication of how much of persons body mass is composed of fat
-individuals with high lean mass
what is body composition?
-measurement of body fat and lean muscle mass
***body fat test
How is fat distribution pattern? (2)
measured by waist to hip ratio and waist circumference
*apple shaped or pear-shaped?
Apple-shaped fat patterning (2)
-increased risk for chronic diseases
Pear-shaped fat patterning (2)
-no significant increased risk for chronic diseases
occurs when energy intake= energy expenditure
What is basal metabolic rate? (BMR)
-energy expended to maintain resting functions of the body
LEan tissue AND BMR
More lean tissue increases your BMR
BMR AND Aging
BMR decreases with age
Stress AND BMR
Stress increases BMR
Thermic effect of food
energy expended to process food
Which macro takes the most to process?
What organ uses the most energy at rest?
HOw much does physical activity cost?
15-35% of total energy output
How much does genetic factors account for towards body fat?
25% of a persons body fat
Thrifty gene theory (3)
-proposes that a gene causes people to be energetically thrifty
-proposes that people with this gene expend less energy than other people and therefore gain weight
-has not been identified
Set point theory (2)
-proposes that each persons weight stays within a small range
-body compensates for changes in energy balance and keeps a persons weight at their set point
What does leptin do? (4)
it is produced by fat cells causes
-reduced food intke
-decreased body fat
Mutation in leptin gene
it causes reduced levels of leptin leading to increased food intake and reduced enrgy output
What gene controls leptin?
3 environmental factors in childhood can influence..
-later adult behaviors
3 strategies that a healthgul weight requires
-gradual change in energy intake
-regular and appropriate physical exercise
-application of behavior modification techniques
maintaining a body weight