Cre 101

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Cre 101
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2013-03-15 00:13:41
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Ch. 1,
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  1. Explain and
    distinguish between the alternative thinking styles known as "the
    Sponge," and "Panning for Gold."
    • Sponge:
    • absorb information about the world and are more capable of
    • understanding its complexities. It involves concentration and
    • memory. Disadvantage-provides no method for deciding which
    • information and opinions to believe and which to reject.

    • Panning for gold:
    • they
    • hope what they are reading will give them new knowledge and they ask
    • questions of they are reading.
  2. *What
    is the difference between "weak-sense" and "strong-sense"
    critical thinking?
    • Weak-sense: the
    • use of critical thinking to defend your current belief.

    • Strong-sense: the
    • use of the same skills to evaluate all claims and beliefs, especially
    • your own.
  3. *What
    are the ten right questions to ask, if you want to be an effective
    critical thinker? (You will be tested on these, from memory, at
    semester's end.)
    • 1. What are the
    • issues and the conclusions?


    • 2. What are the
    • reasons?

    • 3. Which words or
    • phrase are ambiguous?

    • 4. What are the
    • values and descriptive assumptions?

    • 5. Are there any
    • fallacias in the reasoning?

    • 6. How good is the
    • evidence?

    • 7. Are there rival
    • causes?

    • 8. Are the statics
    • deceptive?

    • 9. What significant
    • information is omitted?

    • 10. What reasonable
    • conclusions are possible?
  4. *What
    are values?
    • Values: the unstated
    • ideas that people see as worth while. They provide standards of
    • conduct by which we measure the quality of human behavior.
  5. *Explain
    the four
    primary values
    of a good critical thinker. (And what is a fifth, according to
    Butler?)
    Autonomy


    Curiosity:

    Humility:

    • Respect for good
    • reasoning wherever you find it.

    Virture/courage
  6. *What
    strategies might you employ to make it clear to someone who is
    arguing that you do not want to win and change their mind, but that
    you want to arrive at the truth of the issue?
    • Try to clarify your
    • understanding

    • Ask the other person
    • for evidence

    • Suggest a time out
    • period

    • Ask why your
    • evidence is weak

    • Put each other best
    • reasoning together

    • Search for common
    • values

    • Tell self you are
    • learners and warriors-not heated argument

    • Body suggest
    • humolity
  7. In your own writing,
    how can you make your conclusion
    (or thesis) clear, and what are two advantages of doing that?
    • Insert it at the
    • beginning or end of your essay and precede it with an indicator word.
    • Make certain that it is a direct response to the issue you intended
    • to address. The advantage is it makes the reader a reader's task of
    • identifiable easier and also improve your logic.
  8. *What
    do B & K mean by ambiguity?
    • Ambiguity refers to
    • the existence of multiply possible meanings for a word or phrase.
  9. ch 5 







    *When
    checking for ambiguous terms, you will often discover some that are
    important to deal with and some that are not. What determines when
    an ambiguous term is important to deal with?
  10. ch. 5 







    *Explain
    how to test for ambiguity.
  11. (ch. 5)

    *What
    is “loaded
    language?”
  12. (ch. 6) 1. 







    *Construct
    a one-sentence definition of the word "assumption" as
    meant by Browne and Keeley.
    • An assumption is an
    • unstated belief that supports the explict reasoning.

    • The taking for
    • granted of one meaning for a term that has multiple meanings.
  13. (ch. 6)







    *
    What are values?
    • Values are the ideas
    • that people see as worth while. They provide standards of conduct by
    • which we measure the quality of human behavior.
  14. (ch 6)

    *
    Where should you “look” for assumptions in an argument? (You
    really can’t see them; they are invisible.)
    • In the conclusion
    • and reasons.
  15. (ch 6)
    *
    Define value
    assumption.
    • A value assumption
    • is an implicit preference for one value over another in a particular
    • context. We use value preferences and value priorities as synonyms.
  16. (ch.6)*Why is the author's background important in analyzing his argument? What is the danger in examining the author's background for clues tovalue assumptions
    • Interests the
    • writer wishes to protect. Serves as a clue to the writers value
    • assumption. Not all people of the same background agree.
  17. ch6
    *Explain
    the concept of value
    preference
    where two people with similar values disagree. Use an original
    example if you can.
  18. ch 6
    *How
    does reverse role-playing help discover hidden value
    conflicts/assumptions?


    It requires us to
    weigh two important values (rights of an individual and the welfare
    of the
  19. ch6
    *Of
    what two things is a prescriptive
    conclusion
    composed?
  20. ch 6. 






    ch6
    *Define
    descriptive
    assumptions.
    • Descriptive
    • assumptions is an unstated belief about how the world is was, is, or
    • will become.
  21. ch6
    *By
    itself, a reason cannot support a conclusion; what else is always
    needed?
    • Must connected to
    • the conclusion by certain other ideas.
  22. ch6

    *What
    are "descriptive connecting assumptions?"
    • It's a statement
    • about the way things are, not about the way things should be.
  23. ch6
    *What
    is a "definitional assumption?"
    • The taking for
    • granted of one meaning for a term that has multiple meanings.
  24. ch6
    *Explain
    the five clues or tips for locating assumptions.(p.74)
    • Keep thinking
    • about the gap between the conclusion and reasons:
    • Searching for the gap will be helpful for finding both value and
    • descriptive assumptions.

    • Look
    • for ideas that support reasons:
    • A reason with no explicit support; yet the plausibility of the
    • reason depends on the acceptability of ideas that have been taken for
    • granted.

    • Identify
    • with the writer or speaker:
  25. ch6







    *Give
    two examples of "trivial assumptions" that we shouldn’t
    bother analyzing.

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