Composition of cells

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Composition of cells
2013-05-23 07:20:19
Biology chp3 photosynthesis water

Biology chapter 3, unit 1. Composition of cells
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  1. What are the 4 main groups of compounds found in cells?
    Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids
  2. What are organic compounds?
    Compounds that contain oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. Includes lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids
  3. What is 'metabolism'?
    All the chemical reactions that occur in an organism
  4. Name and describe the two types of metabolism
    • Catabolism: The breakdown of compounds to smaller compounds to release energy
    • Anabolism: the synthesis of new compounds from simpler ones
  5. What is a covalent bond?
    A chemical bond which involves sharing atoms between atoms. Eg. a water molecule
  6. What are hydrophilic or polar substances?
    Substances that readily dissolve in water
  7. What are hydrophobic or non-polar substances?
    Substances that tend to be insoluble in water
  8. What are monomers and polymers?
    • Monomers are building blocks of a cell and make up polymers.
    • Multiples monomers= polymers
  9. What is the basic unit of carbohydrates?
    Monosacchride eg. glucose
  10. What are proteins?
    • Large molecules built of sub units called amino acids (monomer). Are joined by peptide bonds
    • Contain nitrogen
  11. What are enzymes?
    Proteins that take part in metabolic processes of every living cell
  12. What is the role of carbohydrates in plants?
    • Keep rigid structure, cellulose
    • Storage of energy, starch
  13. Describe lipids
    • Made of fatty acids and glycerol
    • Hydrophobic
    • Important for energy storage
  14. Describe nucleic acids
    • Two kinds: DNA and RNA
    • Nucleotide
  15. What are minerals?
    • Inorganic substances required by animal and plant cells
    • They cannot manufacture them, must obtain them
    • Needed for metabolic processes and structures
  16. What are vitamins?
    • Organic compounds found in food
    • Essential for many chemical reactions within a cell