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What are the 4 main groups of compounds found in cells?
Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids
What are organic compounds?
Compounds that contain oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. Includes lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids
What is 'metabolism'?
All the chemical reactions that occur in an organism
Name and describe the two types of metabolism
- Catabolism: The breakdown of compounds to smaller compounds to release energy
- Anabolism: the synthesis of new compounds from simpler ones
What is a covalent bond?
A chemical bond which involves sharing atoms between atoms. Eg. a water molecule
What are hydrophilic or polar substances?
Substances that readily dissolve in water
What are hydrophobic or non-polar substances?
Substances that tend to be insoluble in water
What are monomers and polymers?
- Monomers are building blocks of a cell and make up polymers.
- Multiples monomers= polymers
What is the basic unit of carbohydrates?
Monosacchride eg. glucose
What are proteins?
- Large molecules built of sub units called amino acids (monomer). Are joined by peptide bondsContain nitrogen
What are enzymes?
Proteins that take part in metabolic processes of every living cell
What is the role of carbohydrates in plants?
- Keep rigid structure, cellulose
- Storage of energy, starch
- Made of fatty acids and glycerol
- Important for energy storage
Describe nucleic acids
- Two kinds: DNA and RNA
What are minerals?
- Inorganic substances required by animal and plant cells
- They cannot manufacture them, must obtain them
- Needed for metabolic processes and structures
What are vitamins?
- Organic compounds found in food
- Essential for many chemical reactions within a cell