Management Test 1

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  1. authoritarian/autocratic leadership
    a leadership style that is characterized by strong control by the manager of the workgroup
  2. behavioral theory (humanist approach)
    theory of leadership that looks at the behaviors in which the leaders engaged
  3. contingency theory of leadership
    theory of leadership that includes the leader-member relationship, structure of the task to be performed, and position power wielded by the leader
  4. democratic leadership
    leadership style in which the manager focuses on involving subordinates in decision making, sees himself as a coworker, and stresses communication, consensus, and team work
  5. empowerment
    process by which a leader shares power with others or enables them to act
  6. Great Man theory
    early theory of leadership that contents that some people are born to lead and others are born to be led
  7. laissez-faire/permissive leadership
    style of leadership that provides the least structure and control, little or no direction is provided by the leader
  8. leadership
    process of guiding, teaching, motivating, and directing activities of others toward attaining goals
  9. leadership style
    manner in which one goes about planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the actions of others
  10. management
    coordination and integration of resources through the activities of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling to accomplish specific goals and objectives within an organization
  11. multicratic leadership
    leadership style that requires the leader to employ the style the particular situations calls for using structure when needed and providing maximum group participation in other instances
  12. participative leadership
    approach to activities that allows all involved individuals to have a part or the share in the decisions
  13. power
    ability to influence others, ability to act or accomplish objectives
  14. process theories
    theories of leadership that look at leadership as it relates to group interaction
  15. relational model of leadership
    theory of leadership in which leadership is viewed as a relational process designed to accomplish a common goal to benefit all
  16. servant leadership theory
    theory of leadership in which the successful leader is pictured as being able to influence others as a result of dedicating his life to serving others
  17. situational theory of leadership
    theory of leadership that focuses on the context of the situations in which the leader functions
  18. social change model of leadership
    leadership theory in which individuals and groups work toward a common goal and improve the quality of life for all by promoting basic values
  19. trait or attribute theory
    theory of leadership that attributes the ability to lead to particular traits of an individual such as intelligence, decisiveness, or creativity
  20. transformational leadership theory
    leader who motivates followers to perform at their full potential by influencing changes in perceptions and by providing a sense of direction to the group
  21. acceptance theory
    a view of authority that proposes that authority is earned by a leader from the subordinate
  22. accountability
    as associated with responsibility, often viewed as the liability associated with actions
  23. authority
    • official power an individual has to approve an action, to command an action, or to enforce a decision
    • power held by virtue of the position an individual holds within the organization
    • right to act and make decisions
  24. bureaucracy
    type of administration in which the organization operates through a complex structure of departments and subdivisions, usually following an inflexible routine
  25. centralized
    • to gather together or to make central
    • to organize under one control
  26. chain of command
    the path of authority and accountability from one individual with top administrative authority to the individuals at the very base of the organization
  27. channels of communication
    patterns of message-giving within an organization
  28. communication relationships
    solid connecting lines on the organizational chart
  29. cross-functional
    a process used in health care organizations to train an individual to carry out the responsibilities of another worker or area of work
  30. flat or decentralized organization
    a type of organizational structure with few levels and a broad span of control
  31. informal organization
    group of individuals within an organization that is responsible for much of the socialization of employees
  32. informal structure
    groups that arise within the organization to meet the needs of people within an organization by providing for ease of relationships and ways to accomplish desired outcomes without using the entire formal structure
  33. job descriptions
    written statements that describe the duties and functions of the various jobs within the organization
  34. lines of authority
    pattern of responsibility and accountability that is passed from one level to the next within the organization
  35. Magnet hospitals
    hospital that is so designated because nursing delivers excellent patient outcomes, nurses have a high level of job satisfaction, and there is a low staff nurse turnover rate and appropriate grievance resolution
  36. matrix structure
    type of organizational structure in which a second structure overlies the first, creating tow directions for lines of authority, accountability, and communication
  37. mission statement
    statement that outlines what the organization plans to accomplish, its aims or function, and the group to which services are directed
  38. organization
    a group of people that come together for a specific purpose
  39. organizational chart
    a graphic, pictorial means of portraying various roles and patterns of interaction among parts of the system
  40. organizational climate
    the prevailing feelings and values experienced by individuals who work in an organization
  41. organizational culture
    sum total of organizational values, formal and informal communication patterns, and historical patterns that influence how an organization operates
  42. organizational effectiveness
    the degree to which and ease with which an organization achieves its purpose
  43. organizational hierarchy
    path of authority and accountability within an organization
  44. organizational structure
    way in which a group is formed, its chains of command, its lines of communication, and the process by which decision making occurs
  45. philosophy
    provides a statement of beliefs and values that are basic to the operation of the organization, service, or unit
  46. policy
    designated plan or course of action for a specific situation
  47. policy manual
    written document that contains all the policies for a given organization
  48. procedures
    a document that spells out how a particular nursing activity is to be completed
  49. project structure
    organizational structure that is centered on a group of specialists who come together to accomplish a certain project or task
  50. protocols
    term applied to special unit policies
  51. shared governance
    • form of administration in an organization in which the running of the organization (governance) is shared among all levels of employees
    • aim is the empowerment of individuals within the decision-making system
  52. span of control
    number of individuals one person is responsible for managing
  53. standards of care
    authoritative statements that describe a common or acceptable level of client care
  54. standards of nursing practice
    expected behaviors of the registered nurse that can be used as a basis for measuring performance
  55. tall organization
    a type of organization structure in which most of the decision-making authority and power is held by few persons
  56. career
    profession or occupation for which one trains and which one pursues as a life work
  57. career counselor
    individual schooled in assisting others in the development of their careers
  58. career development
    process of establishing or planning ones career or life work
  59. career mapping
    process by which one develops a master plan for career development
  60. career styles
    form, manner, or stages of career development
  61. clinical ladder
    system of advancing nurses developed around specific criteria that are used to evaluate and promote nurses who wish to remain at the bedside as opposed to pursuing different jobs in nursing such as administration, teaching, or research
  62. continuing education
    learning activities designed to maintain or expand competence in a chose field
  63. cover letter
    letter sent to an organization along with a resume to inquire about available positions
  64. entrepreneur
    person who organizes and manages a business undertaking
  65. exit interview
    interview conducted at the termination of employment or other final activity
  66. formal education
    planned program of learning usually occurring in a school or other educational institution
  67. interview
    typically, a meeting of people face to face during which each learns about the other, or a time during which the evaluator meets with the employee to discuss the evaluation
  68. letter of inquiry
    letter written to inquire about available positions in an organization
  69. mentor
    individual who serves as a role model, guide, and support to a novice
  70. promotion
    advancement in rank, position, grade, or salary
  71. recruitment
    process of actively searching for qualified personnel
  72. resume
    brief written overview of ones qualifications for a position
  73. budget
    formal plan for managing financial resources
  74. budget variance
    difference between the planned and the actual expenditures or income
  75. capital budget
    funds assigned to purchases of a relatively permanent nature often defined as a specific budget amount
  76. capitation
    method of healthcare reimbursement based on a fixed payment per individual in the plan
  77. cost awareness
    process of understanding the costs of operating a hospital including staffing, supplies, equipment, etc., with the goal of assisting with coast management
  78. cost containment
    efforts to diminish the rate of increase in the cost of health care
  79. cost-effectiveness (cost-benefit)
    • relationship between the cost of some aspect of health care and its effects on health care outcomes
    • comparison between the economic cost of any plan and its effectiveness in accomplishing its goals
  80. delegate/delegation
    • when individuals authorize a competent person to act for them or in their stead
    • process of transferring specific job responsibilities to another person
  81. diagnostic related groups (DRGs)
    • category to which a medical diagnosis is assigned based on the average number of days of hospitalization and costs for care
    • used to determine reimbursement under Medicare and Medicaid
  82. fee-for-service
    reimbursement for health care based on the specific services performed
  83. fiscal year
    12-month period chosen as the budgeting year, commonly from 1/1 12/31 or 7/1 6/30
  84. health maintenance organizations (HMOs)
    health provider organizations founded on the principles of keeping the subscribers healthy and avoiding high costs for care
  85. managed care
    any health plan system in which care is actively managed by the third-party payer who sets the ground rules for care and determines where, how, and by who care will provided
  86. Medicaid
    program supported by the federal and state governments and administered by the states that is designed to provide health care to those meeting specific low-income standards
  87. Medicare
    federal program to provide health care to those over 65 years of age, the disabled, and others on Social Security
  88. multidisciplinary team
    group of individuals with differing professional skills and abilities who collaborate to support the client in achieving desired outcomes
  89. multitasking
    working on several tasks simultaneously
  90. operating budget
    funds designated to be used for the day-to-day operating expenses
  91. preferred providers
    health care providers that have contracted with a health care plan to provide care at a predetermined lower price
  92. prioritize
    determine the order of importance for accomplishing a set of tasks
  93. procrastination
    to put off action
  94. prospective reimbursement
    predetermined payment schedule for a given surgery or episode of illness based on some type of statistical average
  95. SCHIP (State Childrens Health Insurance Program)
    health plan developed in 1997 to support health insurance coverage to children whose families earned too much to be eligible for Medicare but who could not afford health insurance
  96. third-party payer
    health plan or government entity that pays for health care provided to the client by a separate health care provider
  97. time management
    planned approach to organizing activities to maximize the amount that can be accomplished in the time available
  98. value analysis
    systematic approach to the evaluation of products, including supplies, equipment, pharmaceuticals, and new technology that are used in patient care
  99. variance
    difference between the planned expenditure and the actual expenditure
  100. zero-base budgeting
    budgeting plan in which every department starts from zero and must justify all budge requests, not just new or increased requests
  101. audit
    formal and often periodic examination and checking of accounts, financial records or operations to verify correctness
  102. benchmark
    specific quantitative standard with which one compares ones own work
  103. clinical practice guidelines (CPG)
    detailed recommendations for processes of care related to particular situations or problems
  104. concurrent audits
    review of patient records while the patient is still hospitalized
  105. continuous quality improvement (CQI)
    formal process in which ongoing analysis lays the foundation for change and improvement
  106. cost standards
    ratio of the cost in resources when compared with a give health care outcome
  107. cost-benefit ratio (cost-effectiveness)
    comparison between the economic cost of any plan and the benefits to be derived from it
  108. cost-effectiveness standards
    ratio of the cost in resources to given healthcare outcome
  109. discoverable
    information that must be made available to a legal counsel of a plaintiff bringing suit
  110. evaluation standards
    set of criteria that an be used in the evaluation process
  111. key indicators
    selected data, monitored on an ongoing basis, that reveal the need for more extensive data collection or remedial action
  112. outcome standards
    statement of the expected results of care for the patient that can be used for evaluation
  113. performance standards
    criteria for action to be taken, usually found in writing
  114. process standards
    statement of the processes intended to accomplish the desired outcomes that should be in place and that can be used for evaluation
  115. quality assessment and improvement (QAI)
    ongoing activities designed to objectively and systematically evaluate the quality of patient/resident care and services, pursue opportunities to improve patient/resident care and services and resolve identified problems
  116. quality assurance (QA)
    activities that are used to monitor, evaluate, and control services provided to consumers
  117. quality assurance reports (incident report)
    written statement describing a situation in which standards were not met or an error occurred
  118. quality improvement (QI)
    emphasis within all types of organizations on continuing to improve al aspects of the organization
  119. quality indicators
    data that indicate that high standards of care are being maintained
  120. rapid process improvements
    strategy of quality improvement in which the problem is identified, the team assembled, and plans for change made and implemented in a very short time frame such as 10 days to 2 weeks
  121. retrospective audits
    reviewing charts after the patients have been discharged
  122. risk management
    taking actions that minimize the risk to the institution or agency of an error or problem that could result in legal action or liability
  123. root cause analysis
    comprehensive, often complex, process seeks to identify all the contributory factors to an error and identify their share of causation
  124. sentinel event
    as defined by the Joint Commission an unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury, or risk thereof
  125. structural standards
    statement of the organizational structures that are intended to accomplish the desired outcomes, should be in place, and that can be used for evaluation
  126. accountable
    situation of being answerable in a legal sense for particular actions or activities
  127. algorithm
    systematic method of solving a certain kind of problem: a set of actions to be followed in a given situation
  128. assignment
    specific set of duties given to an individual to accomplish as part of a job
  129. autonomy
    ethical principal that refers to the right to make ones own decisions
  130. beneficence
    ethical principle that refers to the commitment to do or bring about good
  131. brainstorming
    type of decision making in which a group of people gather and suggest all possible alternatives that they can envision to a problem
  132. clinical pathways/critical paths
    in nursing care, a series of spelled-out interventions and activities to be taken with specific outcomes along a given timeline
  133. consensus
    in decision making, an agreement among all participants to accept the proposed solution
  134. critical thinking
    intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, or evaluating information gathered from observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication
  135. critical thinking dispositions
    set of characteristics or attitudes displayed by an individual who thinks critically
  136. critical thinking standards
    rule for the measure of quantity, extent, value, or quality of thinking that requires that we ask ourselves questions about every aspect of the decision-making process
  137. decision making
    systemic cognitive process in which alternatives are identified and evaluated, a conclusion is reached, and an action is selected
  138. fidelity
    an ethical principle referring to the responsibility to carry out the agreements and responsibilities one has undertaken
  139. justice
    ethical principle that relates to the obligation to be fair to all people
  140. majority rule
    acceptance of ruling, decision, or outcome that is favored by the greatest number of participants
  141. nonmaleficence
    ethical principle that means to do no harm
  142. pros and cons
    listing of the advantages or favorable consequences of an action and the disadvantages or unfavorable consequences
  143. quality circles
    groups of first line workers who meet to develop strategies for improvement
  144. scope of practice
    activities, procedures, and treatments that licensed individual may do as specified by the licensing act of that profession
  145. thinking hats
    strategy that encourages looking at situation from multiple perspectives
  146. unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)
    unlicensed personnel to whom tasks are assigned or delegated
  147. veracity
    an ethical principle that refers to the obligation to tell the truth
Card Set:
Management Test 1
2013-03-15 08:32:45
Nursing Management

Nursing Management
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