Introduction to Lab Diagnosis

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Introduction to Lab Diagnosis
2013-03-16 19:26:15


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  1. Why is it important to order further testing?
    it is important to do further testing because we want to determine what is causing the pain or discomfort in the client
  2. Name 2 things to consider when ordering tests..
    How sensitive and how specific it is for the client?

    Will the test results change your treatment plan?
  3. What is sensitivity?
    What information does it give us?
    Sensitivity referes to whether a test will pick up the intended abnormality 100% of the time.

  4. What is specificity?
    What information does it give us?
    Specificity is the probability of a negative result among patients without disease

  5. What is ESR? what information does it give us?
    • Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate - It is the rate at which RBC's settle in well mixed blood in an hour.
    • The quicker the RBC's fall to the bottom determines how much inflammation is present because RBC's stick together and sink to the bottom during inflammation.
  6. What are the 3 types of anaemia?
    • Macrocytic 
    • The causes of this type are iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia (inherited disorders of hemoglobin).
    • Symptoms - Fatigue, low BP, rapid heart beat, shortness of breath
    • Normocytic 

    • Microcytic -
    • Acute blood loss of haemolysis
    • Symptoms
    • Pallor–reduced amount of oxyhaemoglobin in skin or mucous membrane, Pica–unusual obsessive food cravings, hair loss, Light-headedness
  7. What are the 5 types of WBC?
    • Granulocytic - Eosinophils, Basophils, Neutrophils 
    • Agranulocytic - Lymphocytes, leukocytes 
  8. What is used to diagnose RA?
    Blood tests, ESR, C-Reactive protein (8/10 people with RA have this protein)
  9. Why are blood lipids important to test regularly?
    Blood lipids are so important to regularly because they can determine whether someone is at risk of coronary heart disease
  10. What is a blood calcium ion test? What signs and symptoms would you refer for testing?
    A blood calcium ion test is one to look for bone, kidney or parathyroid gland disease.

    • The s&s you would refer for would be;
    • Hypercalcaemia -  Fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, nausea
    • Hypocalcaemia - Abdominal cramps, muscle cramps and tingling fingers
  11. Blood Glucose Test. What are the Signs are symptoms you would refer for testing?
    A blood glucose test screens for, diagnoses and monitors diabetes and hyopglycaemia. 

    • The s&s - 
    • Hyperglycaemia - increased thirst & urination, tiredness, blurred vision. 
    • Hypoglycaemia - Sweating, hunger, nausea, trembling
  12. What do cardiac enzyme studies measure? When would a myo order this test?
    • A CES shoes whether a client is having a myocardial infarction or a threatened heart attack.
    • A myo would order this test if the client is experiencing chest pain, shortness of breath, nausea or sweating.
  13. What signs and symptoms would you order urinalysis?
    • Abdominal pain, back pain, painful urination.
    • Pregnancy check up
  14. Name 4 substances that a Urinalysis provides?
    Protein, glucose, ketones, blood
  15. When would you order a stool test?

    What information would it provide?
    To determine whether a parasite or bacteria may be infecting the intestines.

    • Allergy or inflammation in the body: evaluation of milk protein allergy in infants
    • 􏰁 Infection: caused by some types of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that invade the gastrointestinal system
    • 􏰁Digestive problems: malabsorption of certain sugars, fats, or nutrients
    • 􏰁 Bleeding inside of the gastrointestinal tract: Faecal occult blood