22.1.1, 2

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  1. The __ failed as authority was reestablished. Still, the __ and __ goals were achieved. __ was real in __ and __, and many European states had __. Those who achieved it were new __ who were practitioners of __, developed from failure of revolutions. They used armies and power politics to achieve foreign policy goals and manipulated liberal means to achieve conservative ends at home. 
    • revolutions of 1848
    • liberal and nationalist
    • National unity
    • Italy and Germany
    • constitutional monarchies
    • conservative leaders
    • Realpolitik
  2. __ was pursued through __ which improved __and fostered __ that led citizens of their states to a greater sense of national identity. __ was the new Prussian king and emperor of a united German state.
    • Nation building
    • winning wars
    • economy
    • cultural policies
    • Otto von Bismarck
  3. The France of Napoleon III: He was a __leader, who taught his contemporaries how __ governments could use __ and __forces to increase own power.
    • conservative
    • authoritarian
    • liberal and nationalistic
  4. I.                   Louis Napoleon: Toward the Second Empire
    • a.      It was assumed his success was due to name
    •                                                               i.      True Character: clever; understood popular forces of his day; wanted personal power; patient
  5. Three years```
    • a.      For three years, he tried winning French people’s support, and when the National Assembly rejected his wish to revise constitution and be allowed reelection, he used troops to take control
    •                                                               i.      After restoring universal male suffrage, he asked French to restructure government by electing him president for ten years= reelected
    •                                                             ii.      A year later, he asked people to restore empire: 97% said yesà Napoleon III and the Second Empire
  6. I.                   The Second Napoleonic Empire
    • a.      Government: authoritarian in Bonapartist sense
    •                                                               i.      As chief of state, he controlled armed forces, police, and civil service
    • 1.      Only he could introduce legislation and declare war
    •                                                             ii.      Legislative Corps gave an appearance of representative government since members elected by universal male suffrage for 6-yr terms
    • 1.      But they couldn’t initiate legislation or affect budget
  7. Early domestic policies
    •                                                               i.      First five years: success= he reaped benefits of worldwide economic prosperity and some own economic policies
    • 1.      Believed in using resources of government to stimulate the national economy and tried to encourage industrial growth
    •                                                             ii.      Government subsidies used to foster construction of railroads, roads, etc.
    • 1.      Major French railway lines completed during his reign, and industrial expansion tripled iron production
  8. To reduce tensions
                                                                  i.      To reduce tensions and improve the social welfare of the nation, he provided hospitals and free medicine and advocated better housing for workers 
  9. Reconstruction of Paris
    • 1.      Under Baron Haussmann, medieval Paris of narrow streets and old city walls was replaced by Paris of broad boulevards, spacious buildings, circular plazas, public squares, an underground sewage system, water supply, and gaslights
    • 2.      New Paris served military and aesthetic: broad streets hindered throw up of barricades and made easier for troops to move rapidly to put down revolts
  10. Liberation of the regime: opposition
    •                                                               i.      Opposition to some policiesà he liberalized his regime
    • 1.      Reached out to working clalss by legalizing trade unions and granting them the right to strike
  11. Liberation of the regime: Began to liberalize politics
    a.      1860s: opposition candidates were allowed grater freedom to campaign, and the Legislative Corps was permitted more say in state affairs, including debate over budget
  12. Liberation of the regime: Liberalization
    •                                                               i.      Liberalization served to strengthen government
    • 1.      In a plebiscite in May 1870 on whether to accept new constitution that might have inaugurated a parliamentary regime, the French gave Napoleon another victory
    • a.      Short-lived as foreign policy failuresà criticism and war with Prussiaà death blow for Napoloen III’s regime 
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22.1.1, 2
2013-03-15 13:47:38
HON 122

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