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  1. I.                   Foreign Policy: The Mexican Adventure
    • a.      Not as successful with foreign policy, especially imperialistic adventure in Mexico
    •                                                               i.      Tried to dominate Mexican markets for French goodsà sent French troops to join British and Spanish forces in protecting interests during upheaval caused by struggle between liberal and conservative Mexican factions            
  2. Brits and Spaniards
    • 1.      Brits and Spanish withdrew troops after order restored, but not French
    • a.      In 1864, Napoleon III installed Archduke Maximilian of Austria as new emperor of MExico
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      When French troops were needed in Europe, Max was emperor without armyà surrendered to liberal Mexican forcesà executed
  3. I.                   Foreign Policy: The Crimean War
    Napoleon III
    • a.      Napoleon III’s participation in Crimean War= rewarding
    •                                                               i.      As heir of Napoleonic empire, he wanted to free France from restrictions of peace settlement and make France chief arbiter of Europe
    • 1.      Saw opportunity with decline of Ottoman empire
  4. The Ottoman Empire: 17th
    •                                                               i.      17th: Ottoman Empire controlled SE Europe, but in 1699, lost Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia to Austrian Empire
    • 1.      Russian Empire to north encroached on Ottoman Empire by seeing Crimea and Bessarabia 
  5. The Ottoman Empire: 19th
    •                                                               i.      19th: Ottoman Empire declining
    • 1.      Nationalist revolt gained independence for Greece in 1830
    • a.      Serbia claimed autonomy in 1827 and Russians obtained protectorate over Danubian provicnces of Moldavia and Wallachia
  6. Ottoman authority
    • 1.      Ottoman authority waned= European governments took interest in empire’s demise
    • a.      Russia’s proximity to Ottoman Empire and the religious bonds between the Russians and Greek Orthodox Christians in Ottoman-dominated SE Europe allowed it to enlarge influence
  7. Other powers
    • a.      Other powers feared Russia ambitions and had own interest
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Austria wanted land in Balkans= conflict w/ Russia
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      France and Britain interested in commercial and naval bases
    • b.      War in the Crimea
  8. War in the Crimea
    •                                                               i.      Russia vs. Ottoman when Russians demanded right to protect Christian shrines in Palestine, a privilege that was already extended to French
    • 1.      When Ottomans refused, Russians occupied Moldavia and Wallachia
  9. Failure
    • a.      Failure to resolve dispute by negationsà Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia (Oct 4, 1853)
    • b.      The following year, Great Britain and France did same
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Why?
    • 1.      Concern over prospect of upset in balance of pwer
  10. Brits feared
    • a.      Brits feared Russia would try to profit from weakness of Ottoman government by seizing Ottoman territory or Dardanelles
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      This would make Russia the major power and allow them to challenge British naval control of eastern Mediterranean
  11. French feelings
    • a.      Napoeopn III felt Russians insulted France, at Congress of Vienna and insistence on replacing the French as protectors of Christians living in the Ottoman Empire
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Also ferared collapse of Ottomans and growth of Russian influence
  12. Russian assumption
    •                                                               i.      Russians assumed they could use support from Austrians (since Russian troops saved Austrian government in 1849), but Austria was neutral
    • 1.      Russia had to fight alone
    •                                                             ii.      Suicidal charge of the Britis Light Brigade at the Battle of Blaklava: poorly planned and poorly fought
    • 1.      Britain and France decided to attack Russia’s Crimean Peninsula in Black Sea
  13. After long seige
    • a.      After long siege and terrible cost in manpower for both sides, Russian fortress of Sevastopol fell, 6 mths after death of Tsar Nicholas I
    • b.      Successor Alexander II sued for peace
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      By Treaty of Paris: Russia gave up Bessarabia and accept neutrality of Black Sea. Also, principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia were placed under protection of all five great powers
  14. Crimian War costs: soldiers
    •                                                               i.      Crimean War costly for both sides
    • 1.      More than 250k soldiers died, 60% from disease
    • British saved by Florence Nightingale and insistence on strict sanitary conditions and making nursing a profession
  15. Crimian War costs:Concert of europe
    • 1.      Broke up long-standing European power relationships and destroyed the Concert of Europe
    • a.      Austria and Russia, the two chief powers, were enemies due to Austria’s unsupportive self
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Russia withdrew from European affairs for 2 decandes to set house in order
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Great Britain pulled back ffrom Continetnal affairs
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Austria, due to neutrality, had no friends
  16. 1870s
    • 1.      1870s: new combinations replaced old; in the meantime, European international relations stood fluid
    • a.      Leaders who were willing to pursue Realpolitik were in situation rife with opportunityà unification of Italy and Germany
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2013-03-15 15:21:40
HON 122

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