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2013-03-16 08:42:08
HON 122

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  1. The Unification of Germany
    After failure
    a.      After failure of the Frankfurt Assembly to achieve German unification in 1848-49, German nationalists focused on Austria and Prussia as only two states strong enough to dominate German affairs
  2. The Unification of Germany: Austria and Prussia
    •                                                               i.      Austria long controlled existing Germanic Confederation, but Prussian power grew, reinforced by economic expansion in 1850s
    •                                                             ii.      Prussia formed Zollverein, a German customs union, in 1834.
    • 1.      By eliminating tolls on rivers and roads among member states, the Zollverein stimulated trade and made members states more prosperous
  3. 1853
    • a.      By 1853, all the German states except Austria joined Prussian-dominated customs union
    •                                                               i.      Middle-class liberals saw Prussia as unifying factor for Germany
    • b.      1848: Prussia framed constiutiont that seemed a constiutiotnal monarchy in that it had established a bicameral legislature with the lower house elected by universal male suffrage
    •                                                               i.      The voting population, however, was divided into three classes determined by the amount of taxes they paid, a system that allowed the biggest taxpayers to gain the most seats
  4. Unintentional alliance
    • a.      Unintentionally, by 1859, this system allowed control of the lower house to go to rising middle classes, who grew due to industrialization
    •                                                               i.      They wanted a real parliamentary system, but the king’s executive power was too strong; royal minsters answered for their actions only to the king, not to Parliament
    • 1.      Still, parliament was granted important legislative and taxation powers on which it could build
  5. 1861: Frederick William IV
    • a.      In 1861, King Frederick William  IV diedà brother King William I
    •                                                               i.      Military training imparted Prussian army
    • 1.      He and advisers believed army needed change to keep Prussia’s power
    • 2.      Planned to double size of army and institute three years of compulsory military service for all young men
  6. Middle-class liberals
    a.      Middle-class liberals in parliament, while willing to have reform, feared compulsory military service because they believed the government would use it to inculcate obedience to the monarchy and strengthen the influence of the conservative-military clique in Prussia
  7. Prussian legislature
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      When the Prussian legislature rejected the new military budget submitted to parliament in March 1862, WIllina I appointed a new prime minister, Count Otto von Bismarck
    • 1.      Bismarck, regarded as too conservative even by king, dominated German and European politics
  8. Otto Von Bismarck History
    • 1.      Born into Junker class, the traditional, landed aristocracy of Prussia
    • 2.      University student  who read German history and was interested in wine and women
    • a.      After earning law degree, he embarked on career in Prussian civil serviceà tired of bureaucratic, administrative routineà retired to manage country estates
  9. 1847
    • 1.      In 1847, wanting more excitement and power, he reentered publicà (4 years later)build base of diplomatic experience as Prussian delegate to the parliament of the Germanic confederation
    • a.      This, with his experience as Prussian ambassador to Russia and later France, allowed him to acquire knowledge of European affairs and learn how to assess character of rulers
  10. Bismarck's character
    • 1.      Comsummate politician and opportunist; not a political gambler, but a moderate who waged war only when all other diplomatic alternatives unsuccessful and only if military and diplomatic advantages were on his side
    • 2.      Ultimate realist and practitioner of Realpolitik; open about dislike of any opposers
  11. Bismarck Actions
    • 1.      1862: Bismarck resubmitted the army appropriations bill to parliament along with a passionate appeal to his liberal opponents
    • a.      Opponents not impressed and rejected bill
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Bismarch collected taxes and reorganized army anyway, blaming liberals for causing breakdown of constitutional government
  12. Bismarck actions (1862-1866)
    • 1.      1862-1866: Bismarck governed Prussia by ignoring Parliament, who did nothing
    • a.      In the meantime, opposition to his domestic policy determined Bismarck on an active foreign policyà war in 1864
  13. The Danish War (1864)
    •                                                               i.      In the three wars he waged, his victories were diplomatic, poltical, and military
    • 1.      Before war was declared, he saw to it that Prussia would be fighting only one powerand htat the opponent was isolated diplomatically
  14. Danish War arose
    •                                                               i.      Danish War arose over duchies of Schleswig and Holstein
    • 1.      1863: contrary to international treaty, the Danish government moved to incorporate the two duchies into Denmark
    • a.      German nationalists outraged since both duchies had large German populations and were regarded as German states
  15. Diet of Germanic Confederation
    • a.      The diet of the Germanic confederation urged its members states to send troops against Denmark, but Bismarck didn’t care to subject Prussian policy to the Austrian-dominated German parliament
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Instead, he persuaded Austrians to join Prussia in declaring war on Denmark on Feb 1, 1864
  16. Danes defeat
    • 1.      Danes quickly defeatedà surrendered Schleswig and Holstein to victors
    • a.      Austria and Prussia then agreed to divide the administration of the two duchies; plan was Bismarck’s
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Prussia= Schleswig
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Austria= Holstein
  17. Bismarck realization
    • 1.      By this time, Bismarck realized that for Prussia to expand power by dominating northern, Protestant part of Germanic confederation, Austria would need ot be excluded from German affaris or be willing, (less likely) to accept Prussian domination of Germany
  18. Joint Administration
    a.      The joint administration of the two duchies offered plenty of opportunites to create friction with Austria and provide a reason for war if it came to that

                                                                  i.      While he pursued negotiations with Austria, he also secretly isolated it. 
  19. Austro-Prussian War (1866)
    •                                                               i.      Bismarck gained Russia’s agreement to remain neutral in case of Austro-Prussian war because Prussia was only great power to support Russia’s repression of a Polish revolt in 1863
    • 1.      Napoleon= bigger problem, but Bismarck bought his neutrality with promise of territory
    • 2.      Bismarck also allied with new Italian state and promosed it Venetia if Austria lost
  20. Austro-Prussian War
    Austrians Isolated
    •                                                               i.      With Austrians isolated, Bismarck used joint occupation of Schleswig-Holstein to goad the Austrians into war
    • 1.      Many expected Austrian victory, but Prussian military reforms wre good
    • a.      Prussian breech-loading needle gun= faster rate of fire than Austrian muzzleloader, and a superior network of railroads allowed Prussians to mass troops quickly
  21. Austro-Prussian War: At Koniggratz
    •                                                               i.      At Koniggratz: Austrian army defeated
    • 1.      Bismarck didn’t want Austria burdened with peace like Prussian king wanted
    • a.      Austria lost nothing but Venetia to Italy and was excluded from German affairs
  22. Austro-Prussian War: German States
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      German states north of Main River= North German Confederation run by Prussia
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Southern German stetes (Catholic)= independent but coerced into signing military agreements with Prussia
    • 1.      In addition to Schleswig and Holstein, Prussia annexed Hanover and Hesse-Cassel because they openly sided with Austria