Card Set Information
Prior to Mitosis..
1. Interphase (2)
-after chromosome replication, each chromosome is composed of two sister chromatids
-centrosomes have replicated
2. Prophase (3)
*clump of the chromosomes
-mitotic spindle begins to form
sister chromatids separate, one chromosome copy goes to each daughter nucleus
3. Prometaphase (2)
-nuclear envelope break down
-spindle fibers contact chromosomes at kinetochore
What is kinetochore?
it is involved in moving chromosomes
-chromosomes complete migration to middle of cell
What is a centrosome? (3)
-microtubule organizing center in animal cells
-composed of centrioles and associated proteins
-important in moving chromosomes
What are centrioles involved in?
-mitotic spindle and completion of cytokinesis
-key in development of flagella and cilia
How many kinetochores do each chromosomes have?
2, one in each side of the chromosome where microtubules bind
means end in greek
5. Anaphase (2)
-sister chromatids separate
-chromosomes are pulled to the opposite poles of the cell
6. Telophase (2)
-nuclear envelope re-forms
-the spindle apparatus disintegrates
7. Cytokinesis part I (2)
-cell division begins
-actin myosin ring causes the plasma membrane to begin pinching in
8. Cytokinesis part II (2)
-cell division is complete
-2 daughter cells form
Do all cells go through cytokinesis?
*muscle cells will duplicate nuclei but not go through cytokinesis
What are the 2 key prteins in cytokinesis?
-actin and myosin
*both are used in muscle movement
(key proteins in cytokinesis) Actin
-helps separate the cells into 2
(key proteins in cytokinesis) Myosin (2)
-motor protein that helps contract
-helps separate cells from one another
What is a centromere?
the structure that joins sister chromatids
(experiment to find how chromosomes move) key step
-photobleached a section of microtubules to mark them w/o changing their function
(experiment to find how chromosomes move) Conclusion
microtubules shorten at one end-at the kinetochore
(experiment to find how chromosomes move)(2)
-motor proteins zip up while that is happening the tubulin subunits get broken down as the chromosome moves up
-spits out tubulin subunits.
Do prokaryotes undergo mitosis?
Steps in bacterial cell division) 1st step
chromosome is located mid-cell
Steps in bacterial cell division) 2nd step
Steps in bacterial cell division) 3rd step
-chromosomes pull apart
-ring of FtsZ protein forms
Steps in bacterial cell division) 4th step (2)
-FtsZ ring constricts
-membrane and cell wall infold
Steps in bacterial cell division) 5th step
What is FtsZ? (2)
-filament temperature sensitive mutant Z
-similar but not identical to Eukaryotic tubulin
(difference in roles of microtubules) In eukaryotes..(2)
-microtubules move chromosomes
-actin and myosin separates cells
(difference in roles of microtubules) In prokaryotes,
microtubules are key in separating cells
Findings for antibiotics by researchng prokaryotes
-the intended antibiotics would bind to bacterial cell protein FtsZ and prevents it from dividing thus the cell ruptures and dies.