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Prior to Mitosis..
1. Interphase (2)
-after chromosome replication, each chromosome is composed of two sister chromatids
-centrosomes have replicated
2. Prophase (3)
- -chromosomes condense
- *clump of the chromosomes
-mitotic spindle begins to form
sister chromatids separate, one chromosome copy goes to each daughter nucleus
3. Prometaphase (2)
-nuclear envelope break down
-spindle fibers contact chromosomes at kinetochore
What is kinetochore?
it is involved in moving chromosomes
-chromosomes complete migration to middle of cell
What is a centrosome? (3)
-microtubule organizing center in animal cells
-composed of centrioles and associated proteins
-important in moving chromosomes
What are centrioles involved in?
-mitotic spindle and completion of cytokinesis
-key in development of flagella and cilia
How many kinetochores do each chromosomes have?
2, one in each side of the chromosome where microtubules bind
5. Anaphase (2)
-sister chromatids separate
-chromosomes are pulled to the opposite poles of the cell
6. Telophase (2)
-nuclear envelope re-forms
-the spindle apparatus disintegrates
7. Cytokinesis part I (2)
-cell division begins
-actin myosin ring causes the plasma membrane to begin pinching in
8. Cytokinesis part II (2)
-cell division is complete
-2 daughter cells form
Do all cells go through cytokinesis?
- *muscle cells will duplicate nuclei but not go through cytokinesis
What are the 2 key prteins in cytokinesis?
- -actin and myosin
- *both are used in muscle movement
(key proteins in cytokinesis) Actin
-helps separate the cells into 2
(key proteins in cytokinesis) Myosin (2)
-motor protein that helps contract
-helps separate cells from one another
What is a centromere?
the structure that joins sister chromatids
(experiment to find how chromosomes move) key step
-photobleached a section of microtubules to mark them w/o changing their function
(experiment to find how chromosomes move) Conclusion
microtubules shorten at one end-at the kinetochore
(experiment to find how chromosomes move)(2)
-motor proteins zip up while that is happening the tubulin subunits get broken down as the chromosome moves up
-spits out tubulin subunits.
Do prokaryotes undergo mitosis?
Steps in bacterial cell division) 1st step
chromosome is located mid-cell
Steps in bacterial cell division) 2nd step
Steps in bacterial cell division) 3rd step
-chromosomes pull apart
-ring of FtsZ protein forms
Steps in bacterial cell division) 4th step (2)
-FtsZ ring constricts
-membrane and cell wall infold
Steps in bacterial cell division) 5th step
What is FtsZ? (2)
-filament temperature sensitive mutant Z
-similar but not identical to Eukaryotic tubulin
(difference in roles of microtubules) In eukaryotes..(2)
-microtubules move chromosomes
-actin and myosin separates cells
(difference in roles of microtubules) In prokaryotes,
microtubules are key in separating cells
Findings for antibiotics by researchng prokaryotes
-the intended antibiotics would bind to bacterial cell protein FtsZ and prevents it from dividing thus the cell ruptures and dies.
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