Card Set Information

2013-03-15 14:36:10

Show Answers:

  1. Prior to Mitosis..
    chromosomes replicate
  2. 1. Interphase (2)
    -after chromosome replication, each chromosome is composed of two sister chromatids

    -centrosomes have replicated

    (first one)
  3. 2. Prophase (3)
    -starts mitosis

    • -chromosomes condense
    • *clump of the chromosomes

    -mitotic spindle begins to form

    (2nd step)
  4. Mitosis
    sister chromatids separate, one chromosome copy goes to each daughter nucleus
  5. 3. Prometaphase (2)
    -nuclear envelope break down

    -spindle fibers contact chromosomes at kinetochore

  6. What is kinetochore?
    it is involved in moving chromosomes
  7. 4. Metaphase
    -chromosomes complete migration to middle of cell

  8. What is a centrosome? (3)
    -microtubule organizing center in animal cells

    -composed of centrioles and associated proteins

    -important in moving chromosomes
  9. What are centrioles involved in?
    -mitotic spindle and completion of cytokinesis

    -key in development of flagella and cilia
  10. How many kinetochores do each chromosomes have?
    2, one in each side of the chromosome where microtubules bind
  11. Ana
    away from
  12. telos
    means end in greek
  13. cytokinesis meaning
    cell movement
  14. 5. Anaphase (2)
    -sister chromatids separate

    -chromosomes are  pulled to the opposite poles of the cell

  15. 6. Telophase (2)
    -nuclear envelope re-forms

    -the spindle apparatus disintegrates

  16. 7. Cytokinesis part I (2)
    -cell division begins

    -actin myosin ring causes the plasma membrane to begin pinching in

  17. 8. Cytokinesis part II (2)
    -cell division is complete

    -2 daughter cells form

  18. Do all cells go through cytokinesis?
    • no
    • *muscle cells will duplicate nuclei but not go through cytokinesis
  19. What are the 2 key prteins in cytokinesis?
    • -actin and myosin
    • *both are used in muscle movement
  20. (key proteins in cytokinesis) Actin
    -helps separate the cells into 2
  21. (key proteins in cytokinesis) Myosin (2)
    -motor protein that helps contract

    -helps separate cells from one another
  22. What is a centromere?
    the structure that joins sister chromatids
  23. (experiment to find how chromosomes move) key step
  24. -photobleached a section of microtubules to mark them w/o changing their function
  25. (experiment to find how chromosomes move) Conclusion
    microtubules shorten at one end-at the kinetochore
  26. (experiment to find how chromosomes move)(2)
    -motor proteins zip up while that is happening the tubulin subunits get broken down as the chromosome moves up

    -spits out tubulin subunits.
  27. Do prokaryotes undergo mitosis?
  28. Steps in bacterial cell division) 1st step
    chromosome is located mid-cell

  29. Steps in bacterial cell division) 2nd step
    chromosome replicates

  30. Steps in bacterial cell division) 3rd step
    -chromosomes pull apart

    -ring of FtsZ protein forms

  31. Steps in bacterial cell division) 4th step (2)
    -FtsZ ring constricts

    -membrane and cell wall infold

  32. Steps in bacterial cell division) 5th step
    fission complete

  33. What is FtsZ? (2)
    -filament temperature sensitive mutant Z

    -similar but not identical to Eukaryotic tubulin
  34. (difference in roles of microtubules) In eukaryotes..(2)
    -microtubules move chromosomes

    -actin and myosin separates cells
  35. (difference in roles of microtubules) In prokaryotes,
    microtubules are key in separating cells
  36. Findings for antibiotics by researchng prokaryotes
    -the intended antibiotics would bind to bacterial cell protein FtsZ and prevents it from dividing thus the cell ruptures and dies.