Neuro Exam 3.1

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brau2308
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207519
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Neuro Exam 3.1
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2013-03-23 20:16:03
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neurology neuroscience neuroanatomy
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review of neuro lecture 1 for exam 3
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  1. What happens in the sensory pathways?
    • external energy-->
    • receptors on distal ends of sensory neurons-->
    • action potentials-->
    • afferent sensory neurons in PNS-->
    • 1st order sensory neurons
  2. What are the different types of external energy?
    • thermal
    • electrical
    • mechanical
    • chemical
    • electromagnetic
  3. What occurs at receptors on distal ends of sensory neurons?
    transduction of energy
  4. What type of process are action potentials?
    electrochemical
  5. What are the afferent sensory neurons in PNS?
    • cranial and spinal nn
    • nociceptors
    • GTOs
    • muscle spindles
    • meissner corpuscles
    • ruffini corpuscles
    • pacinian corpuscles
    • merkel's disks
    • free nerve endings
    • joint receptors
  6. What may 1st order sensory neurons also be called?
    type I, II, III, IV fibers depending on diameter of axons and degree of myelinations
  7. What is the difference b/w somatic receptive fields and visceral receptive fields?
    look to syllabus
  8. What sensory pathways are included as special senses?
    • olfaction (olfactory CN I)
    • vision (optic CN II)
    • gustation (facial CN VII, glossopharyngeal CN IX)
    • audition (vestibulocochlear CN VIII)
    • equilibrium (vestibulocochlear CN VII)
  9. What are included in the spinal cord pathways?
    • dorsal column
    • spinothalamic tract
    • ventral and dorsal spinocerebellar tracts
  10. What is contained in the dorsal column?
    • conscious proprioception
    • fine touch
    • 2-pt discrimination
    • steriognosis
    • vibration
    • movement sense
  11. What is contained in the spinothalamic tract?
    • pain
    • temperature
    • touch
  12. What is contained in the ventral and dorsal spinocerebellar tracts?
    unconscious proprioception
  13. Is Merkel's receptive field large or small?
    small
  14. Is Merkel's phasic or tonic?
    tonic
  15. Is Merkel's myelinated or not?
    myelin
  16. What is the location/appearance of Merkel's?
    epidermal/skin cell
  17. What does Merkel's respond to?
    steady skin indentation
  18. Is Meissner receptive field large or small?
    small
  19. Is Meissner phasic or tonic?
    phasic
  20. Is Meissner myelinated or not?
    myelin
  21. What is the location/appearance of Meissner?
    encapsulated distal end
  22. What does Meissner respond to?
    fine touch; 2-pt discrimination
  23. Is Pacinian receptive field large or small?
    large
  24. Is Pacinian phasic or tonic?
    phasic
  25. Is Pacinian myelinated or not?
    myelin
  26. What is the location/appearance of Pacinian?
    skin, mm, connective tissue, interosseous membranes
  27. What does Pacinian respond to?
    vibration
  28. Is Ruffini receptive field large or small?
    large
  29. Is Ruffini phasic or tonic?
    tonic
  30. Is Ruffini myelinated or not?
    myelin
  31. What is the location/appearance of Ruffini?
    encapsulated endings -- collagenic fibers distal end of sensory neurons
  32. What does Ruffini respond to?
    crude touch and pressure (some vibration)
  33. Is Free nerve myelinated or not?
    • C-fibers: thinly
    • A-delta: non
  34. What is the location/appearance of free nerve?
    resembles telodendria
  35. What does free nerve respond to?
    crude touch; thermal; noxious stimuli
  36. Is muscle spindle myelinated or not?
    myelin--Type I-a fibers
  37. What is the location/appearance of muscle spindles?
    intrafusal and extrafusal muscle fibers
  38. What does muscle spindle respond to?
    conscious and unconscious proprioception
  39. Is GTO myelinated or not?
    myelin --Type I-b fibers
  40. What is the location/appearance of GTO?
    tendons of skeletal muscle
  41. What do GTO respond to?
    all proprioception
  42. What kinds of sensory neuron info is there?
    • general sensations
    • receptive fields
    • nomenclature systems for identifying neuron types
    • general characteristics of sensory neurons
    • receptor organs
  43. Where do general sensations of sensory neurons originate?
    through a visceral/somatic receptive field
  44. Sensory neurons produce the same general sensations except the visceral receptive field doesn't produce:
    • 2-point discrimination
    • stereognosis
    • conscious body sense
  45. What is stereognosis?
    ability to discern objects by touch--w/o looking at them
  46. What structures does the conscious body sense deal with?
    strictly function of skeletal muscle
  47. Are sensory neuron receptive fields somatic or visceral?
    can be somatic or visceral
  48. What are receptive fields?
    a region of somatic/visceral tissue capable of recognizing sensory info and activating the receptor
  49. Are receptive fields large or small?
    may be small or large
  50. Are receptive fields dynamic or static?
    dynamic in nature
  51. What does it mean for a receptive field to be dynamic?
    size may change
  52. What can receptive fields correspond to?
    respective myotomes, dermatomes, or scleratomes
  53. What are myotomes?
    muscle patterns
  54. What are dermatomes?
    skin pattern
  55. What are scleratomes?
    connective tissue pattern
  56. What do scleratomes usually follow?
    a specific peripheral nerve
  57. What occurs at receptive fields?
    convergence of 1st order sensory neurons onto same dorsal horn
  58. What are the types of visceral receptive fields?
    Organs: thorax, abdomen, pelvis
  59. What is the exception of visceral receptive fields?
    you don't get 2-pt discrimination, conscious propriocpetion, sterognosis (stomach doesn't know the difference of what is put in)
  60. What are the types of somatic receptive fields?
    • skin
    • muscles
    • joints
    • bone
    • fat
  61. What are the types of general sensation modalities?
    • crude touch/light touch
    • fine touch/2-pt discrimination/tactile discrimination
    • vibratory sense
    • conscious proprioception
    • unconscious proprioception
    • temperature
    • pain
  62. Crude touch/light touch:
    you are aware that you are being lightly touched; ex: stroking skin and feeling it
  63. Which tract is associated w/ crude touch/light touch?
    spinothalamic tract
  64. Fine touch/2-pt discrimination/tactile discrimination:
    • associated w/ stereognosis; distinguish texture (distinguish b/w 2-pt); allows you to evaluate; more sensitive
    • ex: different textures of sand paper
  65. Which tract is associated w/ fine touch/2-pt discrimination/tactile discrimination?
    dorsal column system
  66. Stereognosis:
    perception of 3-D shapes or objects via touch only; modality responsible is fine touch
  67. Vibratory sense:
    based on cyclic frequency (tuning fork)
  68. Conscious proprioception:
    ability to perceive body position sense
  69. What part of the brain does conscious proprioception occur in?
    post-central gyrus
  70. Which tract is associated w/ conscious proprioception?
    dorsal column system
  71. What are the two types of conscious proprioception?
    • static
    • dynamic/kinesthetic sense
  72. Static conscious proprioception:
    not moving--ability to sense and perceive body position (sitting still, knowing legs are crossed)
  73. Dynamic/kinesthetic sense:
    ability to sense movement and balance
  74. Unconscious proprioception:
    proprioceptive info that goes to cerebellum for processing
  75. What occurs in the cerebellum?
    coordination of muscle tone, equilibrium, gait, coordination
  76. Is unconsious proprioception the same info that goes through dorsal column system to post-central gyrus for conscious proprioception?
    yes
  77. Why has the unconscious propriocpeiton pathway evolved to go directly to cerebellum?
    to allow for faster responses/changes
  78. Which tract is associated w/ unconscious proprioception?
    spinocerebellar tract
  79. Is unconscious proprioception dynamic or static?
    can be either
  80. Which tract are temperature changes associated with?
    spinothalamic tract
  81. Pain:
    response to noxious stimuli of tissue
  82. Which tract is associated with pain?
    spinothalamic tract
  83. Noxious stimuli:
    pain stimulus that damages or has the potential to damage
  84. What does the spinothalamic tract deal with?
    • crude/light touch
    • temperature
    • pain
  85. What does the dorsal column system deal with?
    • fine touch/2-pt discrimination/tactile
    • conscious proprioception
  86. What does the spinocerebellar tract deal with?
    unconscious proprioception?
  87. What do other tracts deal with?
    vibratory sense
  88. What are the different nomenclature systems for identifying sensory neuron (1st order) types?
    • fiber type system
    • Greek letter system
    • histological type system
  89. What are the neurons of the fiber type system named?
    I, II, III, or IV
  90. The criteria for fiber type system is based on:
    • diameter of fiber/axon
    • conduction velocity
    • myelinated/unmyelinated
  91. Diameter and myelination starts high at I and then:
    decreases as it goes towards IV where it is not myelinated
  92. The criteria for Greek letter system is based on:
    • diameter
    • myelinated/unmyelinated
  93. The criteria for Histological type system is based on:
    • anatomy/histology of neuron
    • proper name (i.e., pyramid shaped=pyramidal neuron)
  94. What sensory receptors are associated w/ type Ia neurons?
    primary receptors of muscle spindle
  95. What sensory receptors are associated w/ type Ib neurons?
    GTO
  96. What sensory receptors are associated w/ type II neurons?
    • secondary receptors of muscle spindle
    • all cutaneous mechanoreceptors
  97. What sensory receptors are associated w/ type III neurons?
    • free nerve endings of touch and pressure
    • nociceptors of neospinothalamic tract
    • cold thermoreceptors
  98. What sensory receptors are associated w/ type IV neurons?
    • nociceptors of paleospinothalamic tract
    • warmth receptors
  99. What are the general characteristics of sensory neurons?
    • adaption
    • convergence
    • divergence
  100. adaptation:
    response and adjustments a neuron makes to a stimulus; receptor organ makes adjustment--remember that AP begins at first node of Ranvier--at distal end
  101. What are the two types of adaption?
    • rapidly adapting (phasic)
    • slowly adapting (tonic)
  102. Rapidly adapting/phasic receptors:
    • provide info about change in rate and pattern
    • filters info coming through environment
    • sensory neurons adapt to input so you aren't overstimulated
    • can't isolate stimulation
  103. What are the 2 phases of phasic (rapid) receptors?
    • high phase
    • adaptive phase (lower)
  104. Slowly adapting/tonic receptors:
    • constantly aware of receptive field that the neuron is firing from
    • can isolate stimulation
  105. What is an example of a tonic (slow adapting) neuron?
    nociceptors: ability to discriminate where noxious stimuli are coming from
  106. Convergence:
    when sensory info is coming in --onto 2nd order sensory neurons (many 1st orders to single 2nd order)
  107. Divergence:
    after convergence to a single ganglion, signals can then diverge
  108. Where are receptor organs?
    always at the distal end of sensory neuron
  109. Where does the proximal end of the sensory neuron travel to?
    brain and spinal cord
  110. What do receptor organs respond to?
    different types of external energy
  111. How many types of receptor organs are there?
    5
  112. What are the 5 kinds of receptor organs?
    • pain receptors
    • thermoreceptors
    • chemoreceptors
    • electromagnetic
    • mechanoreceptors
  113. Pain receptors:
    free nerve endings that receive noxious information
  114. Thermoreceptors:
    free nerve endings respond to changes in temperature
  115. Chemoreceptors:
    free nerve endings reception to chemical
  116. Electromagnetic:
    rods/cones in retina of the eye; respond to electromagnetic energy (light)
  117. Mechanoreceptors:
    specialized structures; visceral or somatic; respond to mechanical energy or stimulation (anything that produces force)
  118. Are the visceral or somatic mechanoreceptors more defined/described?
    somatic
  119. How many common types of mechanoreceptors are there?
    7
  120. What are the 7 common types of mechanoreceptors?
    • Merkel's disc
    • Meissner corpuscle
    • Pacinian corpuscle
    • Ruffini endings
    • Free nerve endings
    • Muscle spindle
    • Golgi tendon organ
  121. What are Merkel's disc?
    modified epithelial (epidermal/skin) cell
  122. What meets with a Merkel's disc?
    distal end of sensory neuron
  123. What do Merkel's disc respond to?
    steady skin indentation and mechanically stretches skin
  124. Are Merkel's discs large or small?
    small
  125. Are Merkel's disc phasic or tonic?
    tonic (slowly adapting)
  126. What general sensations do Merkel's disc respond to?
    fine touch, two-point discrimination
  127. Are Merkel's disc myelinated?
    yes
  128. Why are Merkel's disc myelinated?
    for fast AP
  129. What are meissner corpuscles?
    encapsulated distal ends --receptor organ
  130. What do meissner corpuscles respond to?
    steady skin indentation
  131. Do Meissner corpuscles have large or small receptive fields?
    small
  132. Are Meissner corpuscles phasic or tonic?
    phasic (rapidly adapting)
  133. Where are Meissner corpuscles located?
    in skin
  134. What general sensations do Meissner corpuscles respond to?
    fine touch, two-point discrimination
  135. Are Meissner corpuscles myelinated?
    yes, for fast AP
  136. What do pacinian corpuscles respond to?
    vibration
  137. Do pacinian corpuscles have large or small receptive fields?
    large (poorly localized perception)
  138. Are pacinian corpuscles phasic or tonic?
    phasic (rapidly adapting)
  139. Where are Pacinian corpuscles located?
    skin, mm, connective tissues, interosseous membranes (subcutaneous tissue)
  140. Are Pacinian corpuscles mayelinated?
    yes, for fast AP
  141. Ruffini endings:
    bundles of encapsulated endings, collagenic fibers at distal end of sensory neurons
  142. What general sensations do ruffini endings respond to?
    crude touch and pressure (may also respond to vibration, but pacinian is primary receptor for that)
  143. Do ruffini endings have large or small receptive fields?
    large
  144. Are ruffini endings phasic or tonic?
    tonic (slowly adapting)
  145. Are ruffini endings myelinated?
    yes, for fast AP
  146. What do Free nerve endings resemble?
    telodendria
  147. Do free nerve endings have specialized structures?
    no
  148. Are free nerve endings encapsulated?
    no
  149. What do free nerve endings respond to?
    crude touch; thermal and noxious (painful) stimulation (mechanical, chemical, or thermal--upper/lower limits of temp)
  150. What are the types of free nerve endings?
    • A-delta (IV)
    • C fibers (III)
  151. Are C fibers free nerve endings myelinated?
    yes
  152. Are A-delta free nerve endings myelinated?
    no
  153. What are muscle spindles associated with?
    skeletal muscle
  154. The muscle spindles begin with what?
    intrafusal and extrafusal muscle fibers
  155. What do muscle spindles respond to?
    conscious and unconscious proprioception, both static and dynamic
  156. What do muscle spindles measure?
    length and rate of change of length in skeletal muscle cells
  157. What is another name for muscle spindle fibers?
    Type I-a fibers
  158. Are muscle spindles myelinated?
    yes
  159. Where are golgi tendon organs?
    tendons of skeletal muscles
  160. What do golgi tendon organs respond to?
    all proprioception, conscious and unconscious
  161. What do golgi tendon organs measure?
    tension and rate of change of tension in skeletal muscle cells
  162. What is another name for golgi tendon organs?
    Type I-b fibers
  163. Are golgi tendon organs myelinated?
    yes

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